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I work as a research scientist at Schlumberger, an oilfield services company that provides measurements of the Earth acquired while prospecting for oil and developing oilfields. A good example of these measurements are seismic surveys where seismic waves are propagated into the Earth's surface, their reflections are recorded, and then these recorded reflections are turned into structural images showing various rock layers and fluids under the Earth's surface. A lot of physics is needed to understand how waves propagate through rocks of various types (sandstone, limestone, clay, salt,…) that may or may not be filled with fluids (water, oil, gas), but a lot of mathematics is needed to take the seismic measurements and the physics equations and turn them into usable images which can be used by people drilling oil wells and trying to produce oil in an economically and environmentally sensible way.
Computing these images accurately and efficiently requires learning how to implement the linear algebra, geometry, and calculus one learns in school on the computer. As a simple example, one can represent the Earth's subsurface as a layered model where each layer is given a number describing how fast sound can propagate through the layer: call this list of say 250 numbers m.
Doping of thin body Si becomes very essential topic due to increasing interest of forming source/drain regions in fully depleted planar silicon-on-isolator (SOI) devices or vertical Fin field-effect-transistors (FinFETs). To diminish the role of the short-channel-control-effect (SCE) the Si layers thicknesses target the 10 nm range. In this paper many aspects of thin Si body doping are discussed: dopant retention, implantation-related amorphization, thin body recrystallization, sheet resistance (Rs) and carrier mobility in crystalline or amorphized material, impact of the annealing ambient on Rs for various SOI thicknesses. The complexity of 3D geometry for vertical Fin and the vicinity of the extended surface have an impact on doping strategies that are significantly different than for planar bulk devices.
Sheet resistance (Rs) reductions are presented for antimony and arsenic doped layers produced in strained Si. Results re-emphasise the Rs reduction for As comes purely as a result of mobility improvement whereas for Sb, a superior lowering is observed from improvements in both mobility and activation. For the first time, strain is shown to enhance the activation of dopant atoms whilst Sb is seen to create stable ultra-shallow junctions. Our results propose Sb as a viable alternative to As for the creation of highly activated, low resistance ultra-shallow junctions for use with strain-engineered CMOS devices.
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