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Ag3O was synthesized by jet-milling magnetron-sputtered Ag–Ag2O thin films. Heating the jet-milled powders in air and N2 from 40 to 148 °C at ambient pressure produced Ag3O-rich powders. The phase composition and unit-cell parameters of the jet-milled powders were measured as a function of temperature with in situ X-ray powder diffraction experiments from −186 to 293 °C. Ag3O was also produced by ball milling and sonicating jet-milled films at ambient conditions. The phase composition, unit-cell parameters, and thermal-reaction rates indicate nonstoichiometric Ag3O was produced from the reaction of metastable, nonstoichiometric Ag2O (cuprite structure) and ccp Ag. The thermal expansion of Ag3O is anisotropic; below 25 °C, the a-axis expansion is about twice the c-axis expansion resulting in a negative slope of c/a(T). The reversal of the sign of c/a(T) near 25 °C is dramatic. The thermal reaction is arrested when the temperature is rapidly increased from ambient to 130 °C. Ag3O is metastable and decreases its unit-cell volume during kinetic decomposition to Ag when heated above ambient temperature in air and nitrogen. The relative volume expansion of Ag3O is about 80% less than Ag at room temperature and below. The suite of nonstoichiometric Ag3O produced by heating displays a linear relation between c/a and unit-cell volume at room temperature. The c/a and unit-cell volume of a hydrothermally grown Ag3O single crystal reported in a published structure determination was the Ag-rich, low-volume end member of the linear series. The c/a and unit-cell volume are sensitive indicators of the oxygen content and state of disorder.
An Al–Cu–Li aerospace alloy has been investigated to determine the order in which corrosion at different types of sites occurs in AA2099-T83. Specifically, the sequence of galvanic attack on intermetallic (IM) particles and other sites of AA2099-T83 was determined as a function of time, in 0.1 M NaCl, through the use of scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction characterization techniques. The earliest attack occurred at isolated grains and grain boundaries and on Li-containing dispersoids. Similarly, some constituent IM particles showed evidence of trenching in the surrounding alloy matrix. These IM particles included Al7Cu2Fe and another group of unidentified particles which displayed complete trenching within the first 10 min of exposure. Al13(Fe, Mn)4 were next most active followed by Al37Fe12Cu2 with Al6(Fe,Mn) and large TiB2 particles being the least active.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: BURRITO is an efficient strategy that provides full disclosure in the electronic medical record of a patient’s preference in real time. BURRITO uses printed materials only to inform patients and has a <50% rates of consent. We hypothesized that adding an informational video to the printed materials would increase donations. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This study was IRB-approved and was considered minimal risk. The BURRITO self-consent workflow process (Soares et. al, Biopreservation and Biobanking, IN PRINT) was developed in an outpatient cardiology clinic. In the same clinic, patients were randomized to receiving printed materials only (standard procedure) or the printed materials plus a 2.5-minute informational video (intervention) while waiting for the physician in the exam room. Randomization occurred at the level of the day in clinic. Patients were blinded to the nature of the study. Following the presentation of information, the patient’s decision on consent for donation was documented in the electronic record by ancillary clinical staff. Rates of consent were analyzed by a statistician not involved in the experiment and after completion of trial. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Thirty-five clinic days were randomized to either intervention (17 days) or standard (18 days), and a total of 255 patients decided during their visit to either “opt-in” or “opt-out” to donating remnant biospecimens for future research. One hundred patients opted to defer deciding (28%). No significant demographic differences were noted between the study arms. The rate of consent was 73% vs. 58% in the intervention group and the control group, respectively (p-value = 0.014). This represents an increase in the odds of consenting with an informational video by 96% (OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.15 to 3.34). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This is the first randomized trial to show that an informational video with printed materials is superior for when patients are self-consenting to opt-in for clinical remnant biospecimen donation. This result adds to the evidence that the BURRITO process plus video (BURRITOv) is an effective approach for biospecimen universal consenting.
Samples from the sphalerite-dominated zone of a seafloor massive sulfide chimney, the Satanic Mills Chimney of the PACMANUS hydrothermal field, have been investigated to determine the internal macrostructure and microstructure of this zone, the phases present, and the distribution of metals. A combination of electron probe microanalysis, electron backscattered diffraction, and x-ray diffraction has been used. At the macroscale, this zone of the chimney wall is heavily porous and is comprised primarily of sphalerite, enclosing minor chalcopyrite, pyrite, and wurtzite. A Pb–As sulfosalt layer of possible microbial origins is present at the outer edge of the sphalerite matrix, next to a pore. The sphalerite has grown in globules on the order of 300 μm in diameter. At the microscale, the sphalerite features a colloform texture and a duplex-type grain structure consisting of either fine-grain regions in the center surrounded by coarse-grained regions or radiating coarse grains only. Pb- and As-rich bands have been detected in the colloform sphalerite, and growth twins have been observed in both the sphalerite and chalcopyrite crystals. A qualitative description of the growth of a typical globule is given, including nucleation, crystal growth, and solute redistribution.
Accurate elemental quantification of materials by X-ray detection techniques in electron microscopes or microprobes can only be carried out if the appropriate mass absorption coefficients (MACs) are known. With continuous advancements in experimental techniques, databases of MACs must be expanded in order to account for new detection limits. Soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES) is a characterization technique that can detect emitted X-rays whose energies are in the range of 10 eV to 2 keV by using a varied-line-spaced grating. Transitions producing soft X-rays can be detected and accurate MACs are required for use in quantification. This work uses Monte Carlo modeling coupled with multivoltage SXES measurements in an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) to compute MACs for the L2,3-M and Li Kα transitions in a variety of aluminum alloys. Electron depth distribution curves obtained by the software MC X-ray are used in a parametrized fitting equation. The MACs are calculated using a least-squares regression analysis. It is shown that X-ray distribution cross-sections at such low energies need to take into account additional contributions, such as Coster–Kronig transitions, Auger yields, and wave function effects in order to be accurate.
Alluvial mineral sands rank among the most complex subjects for mineral characterization due to the diverse range of minerals present in the sediments, which may collectively contain a daunting number of elements (>20) in major or minor concentrations (>1 wt%). To comprehensively characterize the phase abundance and chemistry of these complex mineral specimens, a method was developed using hyperspectral x-ray and cathodoluminescence mapping in an electron probe microanalyser (EPMA), coupled with automated cluster analysis and quantitative analysis of clustered x-ray spectra. This method proved successful in identifying and quantifying over 40 phases from mineral sand specimens, including unexpected phases with low modal abundance (<0.1%). The standard-based quantification method measured compositions in agreement with expected stoichiometry, with elemental detection limits in the range of <10–1,000 ppm, depending on phase abundance, and proved reliable even for challenging mineral species, such as the multi-rare earth element (REE) bearing mineral xenotime [(Y,REE)PO4] for which 24 elements were analyzed, including 12 overlapped REEs. The mineral identification procedure was also capable of characterizing mineral groups that exhibit significant compositional variability due to the substitution of multiple elements, such as garnets (Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cr), pyroxenes (Mg, Ca, Fe), and amphiboles (Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Al).
Hyperspectral soft X-ray emission (SXE) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrometry have been used to investigate a carbonaceous-rich geological deposit to understand the crystallinity and morphology of the carbon and the associated quartz. Panchromatic CL maps show both the growth of the quartz and the evidence of recrystallization. A fitted CL map reveals the distribution of Ti4+ within the grains and shows subtle growth zoning, together with radiation halos from 238U decay. The sensitivity of the SXE spectrometer to carbon, together with the anisotropic X-ray emission from highly orientated pyrolytic graphite, has enabled the C Kα peak shape to be used to measure the crystal orientation of individual graphite regions. Mapping has revealed that most grains are predominantly of a single orientation, and a number of graphite grains have been investigated to demonstrate the application of this new SXE technique. A peak fitting approach to analyzing the SXE spectra was developed to project the C Kα 2pz and 2p(x+y) orbital components of the graphite. The shape of these two end-member components is comparable to those produced by electron density of states calculations. The angular sensitivity of the SXE spectrometer has been shown to be comparable to that of electron backscatter diffraction.
There is evidence that Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychosis (CBTp) is an effective intervention for reducing psychotic symptoms. The recently updated Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines (RANZCP CPG) recommend CBTp for the therapeutic management of schizophrenia and related disorders. Translational research is required to examine how well CBTp can be applied into public mental health services. This feasibility study aimed to provide preliminary evidence on how acceptable, implementable, and adaptable individual or group CBTp may be within a public mental health service in Australia. Twenty-seven participants initially agreed to participate in the study with 16 participants being randomised to either group or individual therapy, 11 starting therapy and 7 completing therapy. The intervention involved approximately 20 h of manualised CBTp. Attendance was higher in the individual therapy. Subjective reports indicated that the therapy was acceptable to all completers. Participants who engaged in individual or group CBTp experienced a similar level of reduction in the severity of hallucinations and delusions. Individual CBTp may be a feasible, acceptable, and effective intervention to include in Australian public mental health services. A pilot trial is now required to provide further evidence for and guidance of how best to translate CBTp protocols to Australian mental health services.
Serotonin and sympathomimetic toxicity (SST) after ingestion of amphetamine-based drugs can lead to severe morbidity and death. There have been evaluations of the safety and efficacy of on-site treatment protocols for SST at music festivals.
The study aimed to examine the safety and efficacy of treating patients with SST on-site at a music festival using a protocol adapted from hospital-based treatment of SST.
The study is an audit of presentations with SST over a one-year period. The primary outcome was need for ambulance transport to hospital. The threshold for safety was prospectively defined as less than 10% of patients requiring ambulance transport to hospital.
The protocol suggested patients be treated with a combination of benzodiazepines; cold intravenous (IV) fluid; specific therapies (cyproheptadine, chlorpromazine, and clonidine); rapid sequence intubation; and cooling with ice, misted water, and convection techniques.
One patient of 13 (7.7%) patients with mild or moderate SST required ambulance transport to hospital. Two of seven further patients with severe SST required transport to hospital.
On-site treatment may be a safe, efficacious, and efficient alternative to urgent transport to hospital for patients with mild and moderate SST. The keys to success of the protocol tested included inclusive and clear education of staff at all levels of the organization, robust referral pathways to senior clinical staff, and the rapid delivery of therapies aimed at rapidly lowering body temperature. Further collaborative research is required to define the optimal approach to patients with SST at music festivals.
This contribution discusses results obtained from 3-D neutron diffraction and 2-D fabric analyser in situ deformation experiments on laboratory-prepared polycrystalline deuterated ice and ice containing a second phase. The two-phase samples used in the experiments are composed of an ice matrix with (1) air bubbles, (2) rigid, rhombohedral-shaped calcite and (3) rheologically soft, platy graphite. Samples were tested at 10°C below the melting point of deuterated ice at ambient pressures, and two strain rates of 1 × 10−5 s−1 (fast) and 2.5 × 10−6 s−1 (medium). Nature and distribution of the second phase controlled the rheological behaviour of the ice by pinning grain boundary migration. Peak stresses increased with the presence of second-phase particles and during fast strain rate cycles. Ice-only samples exhibit well-developed crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) and dynamically recrystallized microstructures, typifying deformation via dislocation creep, where the CPO intensity is influenced in part by the strain rate. CPOs are accompanied by a concentration of [c]-axes in cones about the compression axis, coinciding with increasing activity of prismatic-<a> slip activity. Ice with second phases, deformed in a relatively slower strain rate regime, exhibit greater grain boundary migration and stronger CPO intensities than samples deformed at higher strain rates or strain rate cycles.
Electron and proton microprobes, along with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis were used to study the microstructure of the contemporary Al–Cu–Li alloy AA2099-T8. In electron probe microanalysis, wavelength and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry were used in parallel with soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES) to characterize the microstructure of AA2099-T8. The electron microprobe was able to identify five unique compositions for constituent intermetallic (IM) particles containing combinations of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. A sixth IM type was found to be rich in Ti and B (suggesting TiB2), and a seventh IM type contained Si. EBSD patterns for the five constituent IM particles containing Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn indicated that they were isomorphous with four phases in the 2xxx series aluminium alloys including Al6(Fe, Mn), Al13(Fe, Mn)4 (two slightly different compositions), Al37Cu2Fe12 and Al7Cu2Fe. SXES revealed that Li was present in some constituent IM particles. Al SXES mapping revealed an Al-enriched (i.e., Cu, Li-depleted) zone in the grain boundary network. From the EBSD analysis, the kernel average misorientation map showed higher levels of localized misorientation in this region, suggesting greater deformation or stored energy. Proton-induced X-ray emission revealed banding of the TiB2 IM particles and Cu inter-band enrichment.
BACKGROUND: IGTS is a rare phenomenon of paradoxical germ cell tumor (GCT) growth during or following treatment despite normalization of tumor markers. We sought to evaluate the frequency, clinical characteristics and outcome of IGTS in patients in 21 North-American and Australian institutions. METHODS: Patients with IGTS diagnosed from 2000-2017 were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Out of 739 GCT diagnoses, IGTS was identified in 33 patients (4.5%). IGTS occurred in 9/191 (4.7%) mixed-malignant GCTs, 4/22 (18.2%) immature teratomas (ITs), 3/472 (0.6%) germinomas/germinomas with mature teratoma, and in 17 secreting non-biopsied tumours. Median age at GCT diagnosis was 10.9 years (range 1.8-19.4). Male gender (84%) and pineal location (88%) predominated. Of 27 patients with elevated markers, median serum AFP and Beta-HCG were 70 ng/mL (range 9.2-932) and 44 IU/L (range 4.2-493), respectively. IGTS occurred at a median time of 2 months (range 0.5-32) from diagnosis, during chemotherapy in 85%, radiation in 3%, and after treatment completion in 12%. Surgical resection was attempted in all, leading to gross total resection in 76%. Most patients (79%) resumed GCT chemotherapy/radiation after surgery. At a median follow-up of 5.3 years (range 0.3-12), all but 2 patients are alive (1 succumbed to progressive disease, 1 to malignant transformation of GCT). CONCLUSION: IGTS occurred in less than 5% of patients with GCT and most commonly after initiation of chemotherapy. IGTS was more common in patients with IT-only on biopsy than with mixed-malignant GCT. Surgical resection is a principal treatment modality. Survival outcomes for patients who developed IGTS are favourable.
This article argues that the transition between early-modern and modern organization of empires—especially the administrative outlooks and institutional logics used to govern them—revolved around how moral conflict was viewed within imperial organizations themselves and by metropolitan audiences. Early modern imperial organizations were deeply patrimonial, and hence relied on a style of embedded moral reasoning that distanced and segmented their affairs from the metropole. By contrast, modern empires order what they govern in hierarchies that are nominally objective and whose criteria seem universal. Using a case study of the British Empire’s crisis and transformation at the turn of the 19th century, I argue that modern imperial administration emerged because networks of moral justification, which provided the scaffolding for patrimonial early-modern empire, eroded in the face of “disinterested” metropolitan scrutiny. This scrutiny created an audience for bitter political and moral conflicts among imperial administrators, who then used disembedded moral claims to mobilize support.
The Zika virus was largely unknown to many health care systems before the outbreak of 2015. The unique public health threat posed by the Zika virus and the evolving understanding of its pathology required continuous communication between a health care delivery system and a local public health department. By leveraging an existing relationship, NYC Health+Hospitals worked closely with New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene to ensure that Zika-related processes and procedures within NYC Health+Hospitals facilities aligned with the most current Zika virus guidance. Support given by the public health department included prenatal clinical and laboratory support and the sharing of data on NYC Health+Hospitals Zika virus screening and testing rates, thus enabling this health care delivery system to make informed decisions and practices. The close coordination, collaboration, and communication between the health care delivery system and the local public health department examined in this article demonstrate the importance of working together to combat a complex public health emergency and how this relationship can serve as a guide for other jurisdictions to optimize collaboration between external partners during major outbreaks, emerging threats, and disasters that affect public health. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:689-691)
Mental Health: A person-centred approach adopts an all-encompassing approach to engaging with, responding to and supporting people with mental illness and substance abuse. This substantially updated second edition incorporates the latest mental health research, including a new chapter focusing on psychotropic medications, while retaining the strong narrative approach of the first edition. Readers are encouraged to connect theory, practice and the lived experiences of consumers and carers. The diverse range of consumer and carer perspectives enhances readers' understanding of the process of recovery from mental illness, the use of mental health services and the provision of mental health support, by encouraging them to make human connections as they read. Written by an expert author team, Mental Health: A person-centred approach is an essential resource for students, supporting the development of safe, high-quality, person-centred care in both the Australian and New Zealand contexts.