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Herbicides registered in vegetable soybean often fail to control waterhemp. The objective of this research was to quantify vegetable soybean tolerance to preemergence herbicides for early-season waterhemp control, including flumioxazin applied alone PRE or in mixture with chlorimuron, metribuzin, or pyroxasulfone at use rates in grain-type soybean. Crop tolerance to the herbicides was tested in field trials with 20 vegetable soybean cultivars and four grain-type cultivars through 4 wk after treatment (WAT). Flumioxazin-based treatments were equally safe, resulting in only minor, transitory crop response (<5% injury 2 WAT) and no effect on crop emergence or early season growth. Flumioxazin mixtures provided greater than 99% control of waterhemp 4 WAT, as evidenced by reduced weed density from 29.7 plants m−2 in the nontreated control to no waterhemp. Flumioxazin applied alone or in tank mixture with chlorimuron, metribuzin, or pyroxasulfone were as safe in vegetable soybean as previously reported in grain-type soybean. Registration of these products in vegetable soybean would provide the industry with additional options for managing waterhemp.
Interest in tactical medicine, the provision of medical support to law enforcement and military special operations teams, continues to grow. The majority of tactical physicians are emergency physicians with additional training and experience in tactical operations. A 2005 survey found that 18% of responding Emergency Medicine (EM) residencies offered their resident physicians structured exposure to tactical medicine at that time.
This study sought to assess interval changes in tactical medicine exposure during EM residency and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) fellowship training. A secure online survey was distributed electronically to all 212 EM residency programs and 44 EMS fellowship programs in the United States.
Responses were received from 99 (46%) EM residency and 40 (91%) EMS fellowship programs. Results showed that 52 (53%) of the responding residencies offered physician trainees formal exposure to tactical medicine as part of their training (P < .0001 compared to 18% in 2005). In addition, 32 (72%) of the 40 responding EMS fellowships (newly established since the initial survey) offered this opportunity. Experiences ranged from observation to active participation during tactical training and call-outs. The EM residents and EMS fellows provide support to local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies. A small number of programs (six residencies and four fellowships) allowed a subset of qualified trainees to be armed during tactical operations.
Overall, training opportunities in tactical medicine have grown significantly over the last decade from 18% to 53% of responding EM residencies. In addition, 72% of responding EMS fellowships incorporate tactical medicine in their training program.
Petit NP, Stopyra JP, Padilla RA, Bozeman WP. Resident involvement in tactical medicine: 12 years later. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):217–219
Bovine trichomoniasis is a notifiable, reproductive disease of cattle caused by the parasite Tritrichomonas foetus. Culturing with modified Diamond's medium (MDM) is required to increase the low number of organisms received from a preputial sample, but is limited in application to remote areas as it requires continuous cold chain storage. This study utilized lyophilization to sustain the viability of MDM during transport in lieu of a continuous cold chain. All lyophilized MDM was able to sustain T. foetus after storage for 42 days at 24 °C, and the results demonstrated that lyophilized MDM was equally as viable as refrigerated liquid MDM. Storage of lyophilized MDM at room temperature for 1 and 7 days did not impact T. foetus yield, both with and without exposure to light. A limitation of the lyophilized MDM was demonstrated with a significant decrease in T. foetus yield when the media was stored at 37 and 58 °C. The lyophilization of MDM provides a robust method of transporting and storing medium prior to reconstitution and inoculation, for use in T. foetus diagnosis and surveillance in remote areas.
A significant drawback of enzyme use in industrial applications is its lack of stability. Graphene oxide (GO) has previously been investigated for enzyme immobilization and enhancement of enzymatic catalysis. Microbial transglutaminase (MTG) is an enzyme that is used to modify food proteins, increase durability of textiles, and crosslink hydrogels for drug delivery. We tested the effects of adding GO and partially reduced GO (pRGO) to water solutions of gelatin and then crosslinking it with MTG, measuring both the resulting gelatin modulus and then the time it took for the onset of gelation. We found that the presence of pRGO in a gelatin-MTG-water mixture (when using 0.75 g MTG in 10 ml of gelatin solution) significantly increases the modulus by 60% more than the control. Using this same concentration of MTG, we measured the onset of gelation time and found that pRGO in gelatin solution reduces the onset of gelation time by nearly 50% while inducing a very large increase in viscosity by three orders of magnitude, whereas the addition of GO increases the onset of gelation time by 33% and decreases the viscosity of the gel by more than one order of magnitude. The very large enhancement by pRGO of the viscosity may be due to pRGO’s electron withdrawing ability and/or may also be due to adsorption of gelatin to the pRGO platelets which effectively increases the crosslinking density through non-enzymatic processes assisting the enzymatic activity.
A robust biomedical informatics infrastructure is essential for academic health centers engaged in translational research. There are no templates for what such an infrastructure encompasses or how it is funded. An informatics workgroup within the Clinical and Translational Science Awards network conducted an analysis to identify the scope, governance, and funding of this infrastructure. After we identified the essential components of an informatics infrastructure, we surveyed informatics leaders at network institutions about the governance and sustainability of the different components. Results from 42 survey respondents showed significant variations in governance and sustainability; however, some trends also emerged. Core informatics components such as electronic data capture systems, electronic health records data repositories, and related tools had mixed models of funding including, fee-for-service, extramural grants, and institutional support. Several key components such as regulatory systems (e.g., electronic Institutional Review Board [IRB] systems, grants, and contracts), security systems, data warehouses, and clinical trials management systems were overwhelmingly supported as institutional infrastructure. The findings highlighted in this report are worth noting for academic health centers and funding agencies involved in planning current and future informatics infrastructure, which provides the foundation for a robust, data-driven clinical and translational research program.
Knowledge of the effects of burial depth and burial duration on seed viability and, consequently, seedbank persistence of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) and waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J. D. Sauer] ecotypes can be used for the development of efficient weed management programs. This is of particular interest, given the great fecundity of both species and, consequently, their high seedbank replenishment potential. Seeds of both species collected from five different locations across the United States were investigated in seven states (sites) with different soil and climatic conditions. Seeds were placed at two depths (0 and 15 cm) for 3 yr. Each year, seeds were retrieved, and seed damage (shrunken, malformed, or broken) plus losses (deteriorated and futile germination) and viability were evaluated. Greater seed damage plus loss averaged across seed origin, burial depth, and year was recorded for lots tested at Illinois (51.3% and 51.8%) followed by Tennessee (40.5% and 45.1%) and Missouri (39.2% and 42%) for A. palmeri and A. tuberculatus, respectively. The site differences for seed persistence were probably due to higher volumetric water content at these sites. Rates of seed demise were directly proportional to burial depth (α=0.001), whereas the percentage of viable seeds recovered after 36 mo on the soil surface ranged from 4.1% to 4.3% compared with 5% to 5.3% at the 15-cm depth for A. palmeri and A. tuberculatus, respectively. Seed viability loss was greater in the seeds placed on the soil surface compared with the buried seeds. The greatest influences on seed viability were burial conditions and time and site-specific soil conditions, more so than geographical location. Thus, management of these weed species should focus on reducing seed shattering, enhancing seed removal from the soil surface, or adjusting tillage systems.
The literary form and rhetorical structure of ancient Chinese poems have not been sufficiently studied. The “Jiu zhang” 九章 (Nine Avowals) attributed to Qu Yuan 屈原 contain distinctive formal features which are highly suggestive for interpretations of Qu Yuan's life and works. At the level of rhetoric, the protagonist frequently describes his own mental state using metaphors of knots and entanglement. At the level of form, the internal structure of the poems, and “Chou si” 抽思 (Unravelled Yearnings) in particular, involves series of overlapping, cross-referencing units that recall the “strange loop” discussed by Douglas Hofstadter as a model of human consciousness. Reading these poems is not just a matter of reconstructing their historical contexts but also of understanding their intended effects on the reader, who is effectively transported into a simulation of Qu Yuan's mind.
Graphene and graphene oxide are being investigated for use in drug delivery systems, bioimaging, and antimicrobial applications. However, their effects, if any, on healthy cells need to be established before they can be deemed safe for therapeutic use. This research tested whether graphene oxide (GO) and/or partially reduced graphene oxide (pRGO) exhibit antimicrobial properties on Staphylococcus aureus; and also examined the growth and proliferation of dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes in media modified with graphene oxide or partially reduced graphene oxide. Staphylococcus aureus was able to proliferate in both GO and pRGO- modified growth media as well as on gelatin made with GO and pRGO solutions. Both GO and pRGO increased dermal fibroblast doubling time and displayed lower cell counts compared to the control, with pRGO exerting a more pronounced effect than GO. After 4 days of keratinocyte incubation, GO and pRGO showed cell counts 75-80% less than the control. Cell counts of test samples dropped even lower by day 5 while the control cell count increased, suggesting that more investigation into the properties as well as the safety of graphene and its derivatives needs to be done before it is implemented for medical applications.
In 2012, the Government invited local councils in England to participate in a pilot programme to test direct payments in residential care. While the programme was set up to allow for comprehensive summative evaluation, the uptake of direct payments in residential care was substantially lower than anticipated, with only 40 people in receipt of one at the end of the programme. Drawing on qualitative data collected for the evaluation, this paper aims to understand better the barriers to implementing direct payments in residential care. Evidence from the use of direct payments in domiciliary care identified gatekeeping by council frontline staff as a major barrier for service users to access direct payments. Our findings suggest that, whilst selectivity of both service users and providers was an integral part of the programme design, gatekeeping does not fully explain the poor take-up. Other factors played a part, such as lack of clarity about the benefits of direct payments for care home residents, the limited range and scope of choice of services for residents, and concerns from care providers about the financial impact of direct payments on their financial sustainability.
Samples taken from sedimentary archives indicate that fungal non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs) can be used to provide information on forest cover, fire regime, and depositional environment in the eastern Andean flank montane forest of Ecuador. Within the 52 samples examined, 54 fungal NPP morphotypes are reported, of which 25 were found to be previously undescribed. Examination of fungal NPPs over a gradient of forest cover (2–64%) revealed three distinct assemblages: (1) low (<8%) forest cover Neurospora, IBB-16, HdV-201, OU-102, and OU-110 indicative of an open degraded landscape; (2) medium (8–32%) forest cover Cercophora-type 1, Xylariaceae, Rosellinia-type, Kretzschmaria deusta, Amphirosellinia, Sporormiella, and Glomus suggestive of a forested landscape disturbed by herbivores and soil erosion; and (3) high (32–63%) forest cover Anthostomella fuegiana, OU-5, OU-101, OU-108, and OU-120. Environmental variables for forest cover (forest pollen), available moisture (aquatic remains), regional fire regime (microcharcoal), and sediment composition (organic carbon) were found to explain ~40% of the variance in the fungal NPP data set. Fire was found to be the primary control on fungal NPP assemblage composition, with available moisture and sediment composition the next most important factors.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
This article discusses two Syriac words which have been understood in many different ways by both ancient and modern scholars. The translations and etymologies previously proposed are evaluated and new explanations are offered, according to which both words, sāsgaunā “red” and syānqā “hemi-drachm”, are loanwords from Middle Persian, though unattested in that language.
The contribution to sea level to 2200 from the grounded, mainland Antarctic Peninsula ice sheet (APIS) was calculated using an ice-sheet model initialized with a new technique computing ice fluxes based on observed surface velocities, altimetry and surface mass balance, and computing volume response using a linearized method. Volume change estimates of the APIS resulting from surface mass-balance anomalies calculated by the regional model RACMO2, forced by A1B and E1 scenarios of the global models ECHAM5 and HadCM3, predicted net negative sea-level contributions between −0.5 and −12 mm sea-level equivalent (SLE) by 2200. Increased glacier flow due to ice thickening returned ∼15% of the increased accumulation to the sea by 2100 and ∼30% by 2200. The likely change in volume of the APIS by 2200 in response to imposed 10 and 20 km retreats of the grounding line at individual large outlet glaciers in Palmer Land, southern Antarctic Peninsula, ranged between 0.5 and 3.5 mm SLE per drainage basin. Ensemble calculations of APIS volume change resulting from imposed grounding-line retreat due to ice-shelf break-up scenarios applied to all 20 of the largest drainage basins in Palmer Land (covering ∼40% of the total area of APIS) resulted in net sea-level contributions of 7–16 mm SLE by 2100, and 10–25 mm SLE by 2200. Inclusion of basins in the northern peninsula and realistic simulation of grounding-line movement for AP outlet glaciers will improve future projections.
If registered for use on vegetable soybean, pyroxasulfone would expand the options for weed management systems in the crop. In order to determine the potential crop injury risk of pyroxasulfone on vegetable soybean, the objective of this work was to quantify vegetable soybean tolerance to pyroxasulfone applied PRE and EPOST. Twenty-one vegetable soybean and two grain-type soybean cultivars were treated with pyroxasulfone at 417 gaiha−1 (twice the recommended field use rate) PRE, EPOST, or not treated. Plant population density was unaffected by pyroxasulfone. Only low levels (<10%) of crop injury were observed within a few weeks after PRE and EPOST treatments. Soybean cultivars were not differentially affected by pyroxasulfone, as evidenced by the lack of interactions between cultivar and treatment for any crop response variable. The low amount of risk of crop injury associated with pyroxasulfone is no different for vegetable soybean cultivars grown in the US for commercial production than grain-type soybean.
Two stone tablets in the Wangye Museum, Shenzhen, contain a bilingual Sogdian and Chinese epitaph for a Sogdian merchant and his wife, who lived in the northern Chinese city of Ye 鄴 in the late sixth century ce. The two texts are published here for the first time and accompanied by a detailed commentary on philological and historical points of interest.