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We present English translations of two French documents to show that the main reason for the rejection of Semmelweis's theory of the cause of childbed (puerperal) fever was because his proof relied on the post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy, and not because Joseph Skoda referred only to cadaveric particles as the cause in his lecture to the Academy of Science on Semmelweis's discovery. Friedrich Wieger (1821–1890), an obstetrician from Strasbourg, published an accurate account of Semmelweis's theory six months before Skoda's lecture, and reported a case in which the causative agent originated from a source other than cadavers. Wieger also presented data showing that chlorine hand disinfection reduced the annual maternal mortality rate from childbed fever (MMR) from more than 7 per cent for the years 1840–1846 to 1.27 per cent in 1848, the first full year in which chlorine hand disinfection was practised. But an editorial in the Gazette médicale de Paris rejected the data as proof of the effectiveness of chlorine hand disinfection, stating that the fact that the MMR fell after chlorine hand disinfection was implemented did not mean that this innovation had caused the MMR to fall. This previously unrecognized objection to Semmelweis's proof was also the reason why Semmelweis's chief rejected Semmelweis's evidence.
To determine how well machine learning algorithms can classify mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) using features obtained from the digital Clock Drawing Test (dCDT).
dCDT protocols were administered to 163 patients diagnosed with AD(n = 59), amnestic MCI (aMCI; n = 26), combined mixed/dysexecutive MCI (mixed/dys MCI; n = 43), and patients without MCI (non-MCI; n = 35) using standard clock drawing command and copy procedures, that is, draw the face of the clock, put in all of the numbers, and set the hands for “10 after 11.” A digital pen and custom software recorded patient’s drawings. Three hundred and fifty features were evaluated for maximum information/minimum redundancy. The best subset of features was used to train classification models to determine diagnostic accuracy.
Neural network employing information theoretic feature selection approaches achieved the best 2-group classification results with 10-fold cross validation accuracies at or above 83%, that is, AD versus non-MCI = 91.42%; AD versus aMCI = 91.49%; AD versus mixed/dys MCI = 84.05%; aMCI versus mixed/dys MCI = 84.11%; aMCI versus non-MCI = 83.44%; and mixed/dys MCI versus non-MCI = 85.42%. A follow-up two-group non-MCI versus all MCI patients analysis yielded comparable results (83.69%). Two-group classification analyses were achieved with 25–125 dCDT features depending on group classification. Three- and four-group analyses yielded lower but still promising levels of classification accuracy.
Early identification of emergent neurodegenerative illness is criterial for better disease management. Applying machine learning to standard neuropsychological tests promises to be an effective first line screening method for classification of non-MCI and MCI subtypes.
Fatty acid taste (FAT) perception is involved in the regulation of dietary fat intake, where impaired FAT is associated with increased fatty food intake. There are a number of FAT receptors identified on human taste cells that are potentially responsible for FAT perception. Manipulating dietary fat intake, and in turn FAT perception, would elucidate the receptors that are associated with long-term regulation of FAT perception. The present study aimed to assess associations between diet-mediated changes to FAT receptors and FAT perception in humans. A co-twin randomised controlled trial was conducted, where each matching twin within a pair were randomly allocated to either an 8-week low-fat (LF; <20 % energy fat) or an 8-week high-fat (HF; >35 % energy fat) diet. At baseline and week 8, fungiform papillae were biopsied in the fasted state and FAT receptor gene expressions (cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2), FFAR4, G protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) and a delayed rectifying K+ channel (K+ voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 2; KCNA2)) were measured using RT-PCR; and FAT threshold (FATT) was assessed using three-alternate forced choice methodology. Linear mixed models were fitted, adjusting for correlation between co-twins. Intake was compliant with the study design, with the LF and HF groups consuming 14·8 and 39·9 % energy from fat, respectively. Expression of FFAR4 increased by 38 % in the LF group (P = 0·023; time–diet interaction P = 0·063). ΔFFAR4 (Δ, week 8–baseline) was associated with Δfat intake (g) ( = −159·4; P < 0·001) and ΔFATT ( = −8·8; P = 0·016). In summary, FFAR4 is involved in long-term diet-mediated changes to FAT perception. Manipulating dietary fat intake, and therefore FFAR4 expression, might aid in reducing taste-mediated passive overconsumption of fatty foods.
Significant experimental evidence supports fat as a taste modality; however, the associated peripheral mechanisms are not well established. Several candidate taste receptors have been identified, but their expression pattern and potential functions in human fungiform papillae remain unknown. The aim of this study is to identify the fat taste candidate receptors and ion channels that were expressed in human fungiform taste buds and their association with oral sensory of fatty acids. For the expression analysis, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) from RNA extracted from human fungiform papillae samples was used to determine the expression of candidate fatty acid receptors and ion channels. Western blotting analysis was used to confirm the presence of the proteins in fungiform papillae. Immunohistochemistry analysis was used to localise the expressed receptors or ion channels in the taste buds of fungiform papillae. The correlation study was analysed between the expression level of the expressed fat taste receptors or ion channels indicated by qRT-PCR and fat taste threshold, liking of fatty food and fat intake. As a result, qRT-PCR and western blotting indicated that mRNA and protein of CD36, FFAR4, FFAR2, GPR84 and delayed rectifying K+ channels are expressed in human fungiform taste buds. The expression level of CD36 was associated with the liking difference score (R −0·567, β=−0·04, P=0·04) between high-fat and low-fat food and FFAR2 was associated with total fat intake (ρ=−0·535, β=−0·01, P=0·003) and saturated fat intake (ρ=−0·641, β=−0·02, P=0·008).
Latrodectism following Black Widow envenomation is rare in Canada. We present the case of a previously healthy 50 year old male who presented with an acute abdomen, hypertension, and urinary retention. After a thorough work up it was determined to be as a result of a Black Widow spider bite. Due to climate change we may see more cases of Latrodectism in the future and it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in anyone presenting with an acute abdomen after an insect bite.
By upbringing, family connections, and education, Felix Mendelssohn was ideally positioned to contribute to the historical legacies of the German people, who in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars discovered that they were a nation with a distinct culture. The number of cultural icons of German nationalism that Mendelssohn "discovered," promoted, or was asked to promote (by way of commissions) in his compositions is striking: Gutenberg and the invention of the printing press, Dürer and Nuremberg, Luther and the Augsburg Confession as the manifesto of Protestantism, Bach and the St. Matthew Passion, Beethoven and his claims to universal brotherhood. The essays in this volume investigate Mendelssohn's relationship to the music of the past from a variety of perspectives, including the pervasive presence of Bach's music within the larger Mendelssohn family, the influence of Beethoven in the Reformation Symphony, and Mendelssohn's compositions for organ and his relationship to English organs in particular. Together, they shed light on the construction of legacies that, in some cases, served to assert German cultural supremacy only two decades after the composer's death. Contributors: Celia Applegate, John Michael Cooper, Hans Davidsson, Wm. A. Little, Peter Mercer-Taylor, Siegwart Reichwald, Glenn Stanley, Russell Stinson, Benedict Taylor, Nicholas Thistlewaite, Jürgen Thym, R. Larry Todd, Christoph Wolff. Jürgen Thym is Professor Emeritus of Musicology at the Eastman School of Music and editor of Of Poetry and Song: Approaches to the Nineteenth-Century Lied (University of Rochester Press, 2010).