To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Preemergence herbicides associated with cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop (hereafter “cereal rye”) can be an effective waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) Sauer.] and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) management strategy in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production. Delaying cereal rye termination until soybean planting (planting green) optimizes biomass production and weed suppression but might further impact the fate of preemergence herbicides. Limited research is available on the fate of preemergence herbicides applied over living cereal rye in the planting green system. Field experiments were conducted in Illinois, Kansas, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin to evaluate the fate of flumioxazin and pyroxasulfone and Amaranthus spp. residual control under different cover crop management practices in soybean in 2021 and 2022 (8 site-years). A flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone herbicide premix was applied preemergence at soybean planting under no-till without cereal rye, cereal rye early terminated before soybean planting, and cereal rye terminated at soybean planting. Flumioxazin and pyroxasulfone concentrations in the soil were quantified at 0, 7, and 21 d after treatment (DAT), and Amaranthus spp. density was determined at postemergence herbicide application. The presence of cereal rye biomass intercepted flumioxazin and pyroxasulfone at preemergence application and reduced concentration in the soil when compared with no-till, mainly at 0 DAT. Main differences in herbicide concentration were observed between no-till and cereal rye treatments rather than cereal rye termination times. Despite reducing herbicide concentration in the soil, the presence of the cereal rye biomass did not affect early-season residual Amaranthus spp. control. The adoption of effective preemergence herbicides associated with a properly managed cereal rye cover crop is an effective option for integrated Amaranthus spp. management programs in soybean production systems.
More growers across the US Midwest are considering interseeding or overseeding cover crops into corn for soil health purposes. One challenge of this practice is the potential injury from soil residual herbicides applied preemergence (PRE) for weed control in corn to the interseeded and overseeded cover crop species. Field treated soil was collected in 2021 and 2022 at Janesville and Lancaster, WI to investigate the impact of PRE residual herbicides on establishment of interseeded and overseeded cover crops via greenhouse bioassay. Soil samples (0-5 cm depth) were collected from field experiments at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 days after treatment (DAT). Treatments consisted of 14 single and multiple sites of action PRE herbicides plus a nontreated check (NTC). Four bioindicator cover crop species were used in the greenhouse bioassay: annual ryegrass, cereal rye, radish, and red clover. Cover crop biomass was collected 28 days after bioassay seeding. Cover crop species responded differently across herbicide treatments. Annual ryegrass and cereal rye were sensitive to treatments containing herbicide group 15, whereas groups 2, 4, 5, 14, and 27 had minimal impact on their establishment when field soil was collected at 30 DAT (interseeding scenario) and 70 DAT (overseeding scenario) compared to the NTC. Radish and red clover were sensitive to herbicide groups 2, 4, and 27, whereas groups 5, 14, and 15 had minimal impact on their establishment. Annual ryegrass, radish, and red clover were more sensitive to PRE herbicides containing two and three sites of action than herbicides with a single site of action. Based on these greenhouse bioassay results, cover crop species should be carefully selected depending on the soil residual herbicide when interseeded and overseeded into corn. Field studies will be conducted to validate these results and support recommendations to growers interested in this system.
Widespread occurrence of herbicide-resistant weeds and more variable weather conditions across the United States has made weed control in many crops more challenging. Preemergence (PRE) herbicides with soil residual activity have resurged as the foundation for early season weed control in many crops. Field experiments were conducted in Janesville and Lancaster, Wisconsin, in 2021 and 2022 (4 site-years) to evaluate the weed control efficacy of solo (single site of action [SOA]) and premix (two or more SOAs) PRE herbicides in conventional tillage corn. Treatments consisted of 18 PRE herbicides plus a nontreated check. At the Janesville-2021 site, S-metolachlor + bicyclopyrone + mesotrione, atrazine + S-metolachlor + bicyclopyrone + mesotrione, and clopyralid + acetochlor + mesotrione provided >72% giant ragweed control. At the Janesville-2022 site, none of the PRE herbicides evaluated provided >70% giant ragweed control due to the high giant ragweed density and the lack of timely rainfall. At the Lancaster-2021 site, atrazine, dicamba, and flumetsulam + clopyralid provided <45% waterhemp control, but the remaining treatments provided >90% control. At the Lancaster-2022 site, the efficacy of some PRE herbicides was reduced due to the high waterhemp density; however, most herbicides provided >75% control. At the Lancaster-2021 and Lancaster-2022 sites, only dicamba and S-metolachlor did not provide >75% common lambsquarters control. Group 15 PRE herbicides provided >75% control of giant foxtail. Across weed species, PRE herbicides with two (78%) and three (81%) SOAs provided greater weed control than PRE herbicides with a single SOA (68%), indicating that at least two SOA herbicides applied PRE result in better early season weed control. The efficacy of the PRE herbicide treatments evaluated herein varied according to the soil seedbank weed community composition and environmental conditions (i.e., rainfall following application), but the premixes were a more reliable option to improve early season weed control in conventional tillage corn.
The use of photosystem II (PSII)-inhibitor and/or protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibitor PRE herbicides in soybean may, under adverse environmental conditions, result in early season crop injury. A field study was conducted near Brule and North Platte, Nebraska, during the 2016 and 2017 growing seasons with the objective to evaluate the impact of PRE herbicides metribuzin (PSII-inhibitor) and sulfentrazone (PPO-inhibitor) on early season soybean development, final plant stand, and yield using 22 soybean varieties adapted to southwestern Nebraska. Herbicide treatments consisted of metribuzin (560 g ai ha−1) and sulfentrazone (280 g ai ha−1) applied within 3 d after planting and a nontreated control (NTC). Sulfentrazone reduced green canopy vegetation at the V2 growth stage by 22% and final plant stand at physiological maturity by 10% compared with the NTC. The number of pods per plant was 16% higher for sulfentrazone and the number of seeds per plant was 15% and 4% higher for sulfentrazone and metribuzin compared with the NTC, respectively. Sulfentrazone and metribuzin resulted in a slightly higher yield (3%) compared with the NTC, thus no yield reduction from PRE herbicides was observed in this study. These results support other findings that sulfentrazone and metribuzin have potential to cause early-season crop injury; however, when applied according to their label recommendations and following regional agronomic management practices, this impact may not translate into soybean yield reduction while such herbicides provide effective soil residual weed control.