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The Taipan galaxy survey (hereafter simply ‘Taipan’) is a multi-object spectroscopic survey starting in 2017 that will cover 2π steradians over the southern sky (δ ≲ 10°, |b| ≳ 10°), and obtain optical spectra for about two million galaxies out to z < 0.4. Taipan will use the newly refurbished 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory with the new TAIPAN instrument, which includes an innovative ‘Starbugs’ positioning system capable of rapidly and simultaneously deploying up to 150 spectroscopic fibres (and up to 300 with a proposed upgrade) over the 6° diameter focal plane, and a purpose-built spectrograph operating in the range from 370 to 870 nm with resolving power R ≳ 2000. The main scientific goals of Taipan are (i) to measure the distance scale of the Universe (primarily governed by the local expansion rate, H0) to 1% precision, and the growth rate of structure to 5%; (ii) to make the most extensive map yet constructed of the total mass distribution and motions in the local Universe, using peculiar velocities based on improved Fundamental Plane distances, which will enable sensitive tests of gravitational physics; and (iii) to deliver a legacy sample of low-redshift galaxies as a unique laboratory for studying galaxy evolution as a function of dark matter halo and stellar mass and environment. The final survey, which will be completed within 5 yrs, will consist of a complete magnitude-limited sample (i ⩽ 17) of about 1.2 × 106 galaxies supplemented by an extension to higher redshifts and fainter magnitudes (i ⩽ 18.1) of a luminous red galaxy sample of about 0.8 × 106 galaxies. Observations and data processing will be carried out remotely and in a fully automated way, using a purpose-built automated ‘virtual observer’ software and an automated data reduction pipeline. The Taipan survey is deliberately designed to maximise its legacy value by complementing and enhancing current and planned surveys of the southern sky at wavelengths from the optical to the radio; it will become the primary redshift and optical spectroscopic reference catalogue for the local extragalactic Universe in the southern sky for the coming decade.
The modern molecular biology movement was developed in the 1960s with the conglomeration of biology, chemistry, and physics. Today, molecular biology is an integral part of studies aimed at understanding the evolution and ecology of gastrointestinal microbial communities. Molecular techniques have led to significant gains in our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome. New advances, primarily in DNA sequencing technologies, have equipped researchers with the ability to explore these communities at an unprecedented level. A reinvigorated movement in systems biology offers a renewed promise in obtaining a more complete understanding of chicken gastrointestinal microbiome dynamics and their contributions to increasing productivity, food value, security, and safety as well as reducing the public health impact of raising production animals. Here, we contextualize the contributions molecular biology has already made to our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome and propose targeted research directions that could further exploit molecular technologies to improve the economy of the poultry industry.
Drawing principally upon a rich vein of previously unexploited business records, this paper analyses the experience of British firms in Indonesia between the achievement of independence and the beginnings of the Suharto regime. As in The Netherlands East Indies, British enterprises occupied a significant position in post-colonial Indonesia in plantations, oil extraction, shipping, banking, the import-export trade, and manufacturing. After the nationalization of Dutch businesses from the end of 1957, Britain emerged as the leading investing power in the archipelago alongside the United States. However, during Indonesia's Confrontation with British-backed Malaysia (1963–1966), most UK-owned companies in the islands were subject to a series of torrid (albeit temporary) takeovers by the trade unions and subsequently various government authorities. Most of these investments were returned to British ownership under Suharto after 1967. But, in surviving the Sukarno era, British firms had endured 15 years of increasing inconvenience and insecurity trapped in a power struggle within Indonesia's perplexing plural polity (and particularly between the Communist Party and the military). Indeed, the Konfrontasi takeovers themselves, varying in intensity from region to region and from firm to firm, were indicative of deep fissures within Indonesian administration and politics. The unpredictable and unsettled political economy of post-colonial Indonesia meant that the balance of advantage lay not with transnational enterprise but with the host state and society.
In a ‘dawn raid’ on the London Stock Exchange on 7 September 1981, the premiere British rubber and oil palm conglomerate in Malaysia, the Guthrie Corporation Limited, was taken into local control in less than four hours. This was the most dramatic Malaysian acquisition of a foreign company during the restructuring of the country's post-colonial economy during the 1970s and 1980s, and the Guthrie Dawn Raid remains a celebrated but, at the same time, contested juncture in contemporary Malaysian memory. Drawing upon a variety of sources—including original interviews and correspondence with key participants in, and observers of, the Guthrie Dawn Raid, as well as newly released British documents related to the Anglo-Malaysian events of September 1981—this article presents a new interpretation of the origins of this most iconic of Malaysian corporate takeovers. In particular, it stresses the long-term aspirations of a key (but often overlooked) figure within the late and post-colonial Malay bureaucratic and economic elite, Ismail Mohamed Ali. At the same time, the article emphasizes the specific requirements of Malaysia's New Economic Policy against the backdrop of burgeoning intra-Malaysian ethnic business competition.
High density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping panels provide an alternative to microsatellite markers for genome scans. However, genotype errors have a major impact on power to detect linkage or association and are difficult to detect for SNPs. We estimated error rates with the Affymetrix GeneChip® SNP platform in samples from a family with a mixed set of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) triplets using lymphocyte, buccal DNA and samples from whole genome amplification using the multiple displacement amplification (MDA) technique. The average call rate from 58,960 SNPs for five genomic samples was 99.48%. Comparison of results for the MZ twins showed only three discordant genotypes (concordance rate 99.995%). The mean concordance rate for comparisons of samples from lymphocyte and buccal DNA was 99.97%. Mendelian inconsistencies were identified in 46 SNPs with errors in one or more family members, a rate of 0.022%. Observed genotype concordance rates between parents, between parents and children, and among siblings were consistent with previously reported allele frequencies and Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Using the MDA technique, results for two samples had equivalent high accuracy to results with genomic samples. However, the SNP call rate for the remaining seven samples varied from 72.5% to 99.5%, with an average of 86.11%. Quality of the DNA sample following the MDA reaction appears to be the critical factor in SNP call rate for MDA samples. Our results demonstrate highly accurate and reproducible genotyping for the Affymetrix GeneChip® Human Mapping Set in lymphocyte and buccal DNA samples.
The term ‘crony capitalism’ describes the close relationship between the state and big business in contemporary Southeast Asia. Yoshihara argued in 1988 that cronyism produced an entrepreneurially weak, ersatz capitalism. Crony capitalists were ‘private-sector businessmen who benefit[ed] enormously from close relations’ with leading officials and politicians, obtaining ‘not only protection from foreign competition, but also concessions, licences, monopoly rights, and government subsidies’. Yoshihara's thesis has been subject to some criticism, but, in summarizing that debate, Ian Brown states that ‘there are…substantial areas of the South-East Asian political-economic landscape where government and business remain bound to the protection of inefficient vested interest, to the defence of monopoly and preference, and where speculations and short-term profit-taking are rife’. Entrepreneurial weaknesses in Southeast Asia appeared fully exposed by the financial crisis of 1997, when the economies of the region could not withstand the cruel buffetings of the international economy.
The eight dominant culturable members of an Antarctic fellfield soil bacterial community were four Arthrobacter species, Sanguibacter suarezii, Aureobacterium testaceum, a Bacillus sp., and a Pseudomonas sp.. All of the isolates grew at 2°C, but two of the Arthrobacter spp. were psychrophilic, while the other six bacterial species were psychrotolerant. However, the fastest growing organisms at low temperatures were not the psychrophiles, and the psychrotolerant Bacillus sp. grew fastest at temperatures up to 25°C. When the growth temperature of cultures was altered, the phospholipid content of the two psychrophilic Arthrobacter spp. decreased, whereas the phospholipid contents of the psychrotolerant spp. either increased or did not change. Only one psychrophilic and one psychrotolerant Arthrobacter sp. modified its polar lipid head-group composition in response to a lowering of growth temperature. The change in Arthrobacter sp. CL2-1 was particularly marked and novel in that at low temperatures phosphatidylethanolamine was replaced completely by a phosphoglycolipid and phosphatidylserine, neither of which was present at higher growth temperatures. All eight isolates altered the fatty acyl compositions of their membrane lipids in a manner that was only partially dependent on taxonomic status. In Bacillus sp. C2-1 the changes were opposite to that predicted on the basis of membrane fluidity considerations. The isolates used different combinations of changes in fatty acid branching, unsaturation and chain length. There was no single strategy of thermal adaptation that was employed and the variety of strategies used did not follow phylogenetic boundaries.