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Preemergence herbicides associated with cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop (hereafter “cereal rye”) can be an effective waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) Sauer.] and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) management strategy in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production. Delaying cereal rye termination until soybean planting (planting green) optimizes biomass production and weed suppression but might further impact the fate of preemergence herbicides. Limited research is available on the fate of preemergence herbicides applied over living cereal rye in the planting green system. Field experiments were conducted in Illinois, Kansas, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin to evaluate the fate of flumioxazin and pyroxasulfone and Amaranthus spp. residual control under different cover crop management practices in soybean in 2021 and 2022 (8 site-years). A flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone herbicide premix was applied preemergence at soybean planting under no-till without cereal rye, cereal rye early terminated before soybean planting, and cereal rye terminated at soybean planting. Flumioxazin and pyroxasulfone concentrations in the soil were quantified at 0, 7, and 21 d after treatment (DAT), and Amaranthus spp. density was determined at postemergence herbicide application. The presence of cereal rye biomass intercepted flumioxazin and pyroxasulfone at preemergence application and reduced concentration in the soil when compared with no-till, mainly at 0 DAT. Main differences in herbicide concentration were observed between no-till and cereal rye treatments rather than cereal rye termination times. Despite reducing herbicide concentration in the soil, the presence of the cereal rye biomass did not affect early-season residual Amaranthus spp. control. The adoption of effective preemergence herbicides associated with a properly managed cereal rye cover crop is an effective option for integrated Amaranthus spp. management programs in soybean production systems.
Cereal rye cover crop (cereal rye) and preemergence (PRE) herbicides are becoming common practices for managing herbicide-resistant weeds in soybean production. Adopting these two practices in combination raises concerns regarding herbicide fate in soil, given that the cereal rye biomass can intercept the herbicide spray solution, preventing it from reaching the soil. Delaying cereal rye termination until soybean planting (planting green) optimizes biomass accumulation but might also increase PRE interception. To better understand the dynamics between cereal rye and PRE herbicides, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate two soil management practices (tillage and no-till) and two cereal rye termination practices in the planting-green system (glyphosate [1,260 g ae ha−1] and roller-crimper) on the spray deposition and fate of PRE herbicides and soybean yield. The spray deposition was assessed by placing water-sensitive paper cards on the soil surface before spraying the PRE herbicides (sulfentrazone [153 g ai ha−1] + S-metolachlor [1,379 g ai ha−1]). Herbicide concentration in soil (0 to 7.6 cm) was quantified 25 d after treatment (DAT). The presence of no-till stubble and cereal rye biomass reduced the spray coverage compared to tillage at PRE application, which reflected in a reduction in the concentration of both herbicides in soil 25 DAT. Soybean yield was reduced in all three years when the cereal rye was terminated with a roller-crimper but only reduced in one year when terminated with glyphosate. Our findings indicate that mainly cereal rye biomass reduced the concentration of PRE herbicides in the soil due to the interception of the spray solution during application. Although higher cereal rye biomass accumulation can provide better weed suppression according to the literature, farmers should be aware that the biomass can lower the concentration of PRE herbicides reaching the soil, thus intensifying field scouting to ensure that weed control is not being negatively affected.
A comprehensive, Wisconsin state-wide assessment of waterhemp response to a diverse group of herbicide sites of action has not been conducted. Our objective was to characterize the response of a state-wide collection of waterhemp accessions to postemergence (POST) and preemergence (PRE) herbicides commonly used in corn and soybean in Wisconsin. Greenhouse experiments were conducted with more than 80 accessions from 27 counties. POST treatments included 2,4-D, atrazine, dicamba, fomesafen, glufosinate, glyphosate, imazethapyr, and mesotrione at 1× and 3× label rates. PRE treatments included atrazine, fomesafen, mesotrione, metribuzin, and S-metolachlor at 0.5×, 1×, and 3× label rates. Ninety-eight percent and 88% of the accessions exhibited ≥50% plant survival after exposure to imazethapyr and glyphosate POST 3× rate, respectively. Seventeen percent, 16%, and 3% of the accessions exhibited ≥50% plant survival after exposure to 2,4-D, atrazine, and dicamba, respectively, applied POST at the 1× rate. Survival of all accessions was ≤25% after exposure to 2,4-D or dicamba applied POST at the 3× rate, or glufosinate, fomesafen, and mesotrione applied POST at either rate evaluated. No plant of any accession survived exposure to glufosinate at either rate. Forty-five percent and 3% of the accessions exhibited <90% plant density reduction after exposure to atrazine applied PRE at the 3× rate and fomesafen PRE at the 1× rate, respectively. Plant density reduction of all accessions was ≥96% after exposure to fomesafen applied PRE at the 3× rate, or metribuzin, S-metolachlor, and mesotrione applied PRE at the 1× rate. Our results suggest that waterhemp resistance to imazethapyr and glyphosate applied POST is widespread in Wisconsin, whereas resistance to 2,4-D, atrazine, and dicamba applied POST is present to a lower extent. One accession (A75, Fond du Lac County) exhibited multiple resistance to imazethapyr, atrazine, glyphosate, and 2,4-D when applied POST. Overall, atrazine applied PRE was ineffective for waterhemp control in Wisconsin. Proactive resistance management and the use of effective PRE and POST herbicides are fundamental for waterhemp management in Wisconsin.
The continued dispersal of Palmer amaranth can impose detrimental impacts on cropping systems in Wisconsin. Our objective was to characterize the response of a recently introduced Palmer amaranth accession in southern Wisconsin to postemergence (POST) and preemergence (PRE) herbicides commonly used in corn and soybean. Greenhouse experiments were conducted with the Wisconsin putative herbicide-resistant accession (BRO) and two additional control accessions from Nebraska, a glyphosate-resistant (KEI2) and a glyphosate-susceptible (KEI3) accession. POST treatments were 2,4-D, atrazine, dicamba, glufosinate, glyphosate, imazethapyr, lactofen, and mesotrione at 1X and 3X label rates. PRE treatments were atrazine, mesotrione, metribuzin, S-metolachlor, and sulfentrazone at 0.5X, 1X, and 3X label rates. Plant survival of each accession was ≥63% after exposure to imazethapyr POST 3X rate. Survival of BRO and KEI2 was 44% (±13) and 50% (±13), respectively, after exposure to atrazine POST 3X rate. Survival of BRO was 69% (±12) after exposure to glyphosate POST 1X rate, whereas survival of KEI2 was 44% (±13) after exposure to glyphosate POST 3X rate. After exposure to 2,4-D POST 1X rate, KEI2 and KEI3 survival was 38% (±13) and 50% (±13), respectively. Survival of all accessions was ≤31% after exposure to 2,4-D POST 3X rate or dicamba, glufosinate, lactofen, and mesotrione POST at either rate. Plant density reduction of KEI2 was 77% (±13) after exposure to atrazine PRE 1X rate, whereas density reduction of BRO was 56% (±13) after exposure to atrazine PRE 3X rate. Plant density reduction of all accessions was ≥94% after exposure to mesotrione PRE 1X and 3X rates or metribuzin, S-metolachlor, and sulfentrazone PRE at either rate. Our results suggest that each accession is resistant (≥50% survival) to imazethapyr POST, that BRO and KEI2 are resistant to atrazine and glyphosate POST, and that KEI2 and KEI3 are resistant to 2,4-D POST. The recently introduced BRO accession exhibited multiple resistance to imazethapyr, atrazine, and glyphosate POST. In addition, atrazine PRE was ineffective for BRO control, suggesting that diversified resistance management strategies will be critical for its effective management.
Recent legalization of industrial hemp in the United States has led to increased interest among stakeholders to produce hemp for grain and fiber. However, owing to the lack of herbicides registered for use in hemp, producers are left with limited weed management strategies. Moreover, much of the agricultural land that could be used to cultivate industrial hemp may be prone to carryover of previously applied residual herbicides or physical drift from herbicides sprayed nearby. Industrial hemp sensitivity to herbicides is not well documented. Dose–response studies were conducted under controlled conditions in Madison, WI, screening two industrial hemp grain cultivars for tolerance to 44 preemergence and postemergence herbicides commonly used in corn and soybean. Treatments consisted of herbicides applied at 0×, 0.125×, 0.25×, 0.50×, 0.75×, 1×, 2×, and 4× the recommended maximum labeled rates based on soil type. Preemergence applications were delivered immediately after planting, whereas postemergence applications took place when hemp plants reached 5 to 10 cm in height. Nontreated plants served as the control and were used to estimate percent biomass reduction; dose–response curves were generated. Biomass reduction was >50% for rates under the suggested label rate for 23 preemergence and 21 postemergence herbicides tested. All herbicides tested resulted in >25% biomass reduction at the 0.125× rate, except for clopyralid applied preemergence and postemergence and saflufenacil applied preemergence. This is concerning, as the label rates are determined for effective weed control and the mitigation of herbicide resistance. Overall, these results indicate that industrial hemp is very sensitive to most herbicides tested. Growers should consider herbicide use history and surrounding crops when determining industrial hemp field selection to prevent significant plant injury due to herbicide carryover and drift. Further research into alternative methods of weed control will be vital to establishing hemp as a dominant crop once again.
Owing to the lack of effective POST herbicide options, producers typically rely on nicosulfuron as the main POST grass herbicide in sweet corn production systems. In 2019, a Wisconsin sweet corn producer reported fall panicum control escapes after spraying nicosulfuron. Seeds from mature plants were collected to (1) measure fall panicum response to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides, (2) elucidate the resistance mechanism, and (3) evaluate its response to alternative POST herbicides. Greenhouse and laboratory investigations were conducted to assess fall panicum response to ALS-inhibiting herbicides and elucidate the resistance mechanism. Dose–response results showed that fall panicum was highly resistant to nicosulfuron with a resistance ratio of >12.9-fold (survived rates >254 g ai ha−1, or 8× the field label rate). Molecular and genetic studies indicated that there are multiple ALS gene copies in fall panicum and that resistance was due to a mutation in one copy, resulting in an Asp-376-Glu amino acid substitution. Additional greenhouse experiments indicate that clethodim (105 g ai ha−1), quizalofop-p-ethyl (70 g ae ha−1), glyphosate (864 g ae ha−1), and glufosinate (650 g ai ha−1) are effective POST options to manage the ALS-resistant fall panicum (>90.0% control and 96.8% biomass reduction) in rotational years. The 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicides isoxaflutole (105 g ai ha−1), mesotrione (105 g ai ha−1), tembotrione (92 g ai ha−1), and tolpyralate (39 g ai ha−1) did not provide effective POST fall panicum control. Because these herbicides are commonly used for POST weed control in sweet corn, more investigations are required to evaluate combinations of HPPD-inhibiting herbicides with herbicides from other sites of action for POST fall panicum control. Herein we confirm the first case of herbicide resistance in fall panicum in the United States.
Herbicides with soil-residual activity have the potential for carryover into subsequent crops, resulting in injury to sensitive crops and limiting productivity if severe. The increased use of soil-residual herbicides in the United States for management of troublesome weeds in corn- and soybean-cropping systems has potential to result in more cases of carryover. Soil management practices have different effects on the soil environment, potentially influencing herbicide degradation and likelihood of carryover. Field experiments were conducted at three sites in 2019 and 2020 to determine the effects of corn (clopyralid and mesotrione) and soybean (fomesafen and imazethapyr) herbicides applied in the fall at reduced rates (25% and 50% of labeled rates) and three soil management practices (tillage, no-tillage, and a fall-established cereal rye cover crop) on subsequent growth and productivity of the cereal rye cover crop and the soybean and corn crops, respectively. Most response variables (cereal rye biomass and crop canopy cover at cover crop termination in the spring, early-season crop stand and herbicide injury ratings, and crop yield) were not affected by herbicide carryover. Corn yield was lower when soil was managed with a cereal rye cover crop compared with tillage at all three sites, while yield was lower for no-till compared with tillage at two sites. Soybean yield was lower when managed with a cereal rye cover crop compared with tillage and no-till at one site. Findings from this research indicate a low carryover risk for these herbicides across site-years when label rotational restrictions are followed and environmental conditions favorable for herbicide degradation exist, regardless of soil management practice on silt loam or silty clay loam soil types in the U.S. Midwest region.
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