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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Happy House, a universal school-based programme, in reducing adolescents’ depressive symptoms and improving their mental well-being, coping self-efficacy and school connectedness. This was a school-based, two-arm parallel controlled trial. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Data were collected at recruitment, and at 2 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. Mixed-effect models were conducted to estimate the effects of the intervention on the outcomes. A total of 1,084 students were recruited. At 2 weeks post-intervention, the effect size on depressive symptoms was 0.11 (p = 0.011) and the odds of having clinically significant depressive symptoms were lower in the intervention compared to the control (0.56, p = 0.027). Both of these were no longer significant at 6 months post-intervention. Psychological well-being mean scores in the intervention were significantly higher than in the control at 2 weeks post-intervention (effect size 0.13). Coping self-efficacy mean scores were significantly higher in the intervention group at both 2-week and 6-month post-intervention (effect sizes from 0.17 to 0.26). Data support the potential of Happy House to reduce the prevalence of adolescent mental health problems and to promote positive mental health in the school context in Vietnam.
In this paper, we investigate an initial-boundary value problem of a reaction–diffusion equation in a bounded domain with a Robin boundary condition and introduce some particular parameters to consider the non-zero flux on the boundary. This problem arises in the study of mosquito populations under the intervention of the population replacement method, where the boundary condition takes into account the inflow and outflow of individuals through the boundary. Using phase plane analysis, the present paper studies the existence and properties of non-constant steady-state solutions depending on several parameters. Then, we prove some sufficient conditions for their stability. We show that the long-time efficiency of this control method depends strongly on the size of the treated zone and the migration rate. To illustrate these theoretical results, we provide some numerical simulations in the framework of mosquito population control.
Objectives: Studies have revealed that a relatively high incidence of severe infection and mortality in COVID-19 patients is attributed to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). We implemented a study in 2 field hospitals dedicated to COVID-19 treatment in Da Nang, Vietnam (July–August 2020), and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (August–October 2021), to identify pathogens, risk factors, and outcomes associated with HAIs. Methods: We applied a prospective study tool to estimate HAI incidence among 1,454 patients. HAIs are diagnosed and ascertained using surveillance criteria established by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. All patients hospitalized for COVID-19 for at least 2 days were enrolled in this assessment of HAI risks, pathogens, and outcomes. Results: Among 1,454 sampled patients, 391 patients had 423 HAIs (27.1%). The highest proportion occurred in ICUs, with 422 HAI patients (34.1%). Pneumonia (n = 331, 78.3%) and bloodstream infections (n = 55, 13.1%) were the most common HAIs. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneumonia (27.9%) and Acinetobacter baumannii (25.3%), were the most commonly isolated organisms. Ventilators and central venous catheters were independently associated with HAIs. Regarding the mortality rates, 55% of deaths occurred in intensive care units. Patients with HAIs (70.3%) were twice as likely to die compared to patients without HAIs (38.8%). HAIs leading to septic shock caused almost triple mortality (n = 58, 90.6%) compared with non-HAI patients (n = 412, 38.8%). HAIs prolonged hospital stay: 24.7 days for patients with HAIs and 19.1 days for patients without HAIs (P < .001). Conclusions: Patients with COVID-19–related critical illnesses are at high risk of HAIs from multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. HAIs prolong hospitalization, whereas HAIs with septic shock almost tripled mortality. Guidelines and procedures to prevent and control HAIs caused by MDR bacteria as well as training and monitoring on aseptic-compliant techniques during invasive clinical procedures are needed.
Objectives: In Vietnam, although surveillance and control of multidrug-resistant organisms is a national priority, information on the burden of these pathogens remains scarce. At the University Medical Center in Ho Chi Minh City, we assessed the proportion of carbapanemase-producing carbapenem-resistant organisms (CP-CRO) and evaluated an intervention package to prevent transmission of carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterieacea (CP-CRE) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: All gram-negative isolates collected between November 2018 to April 2019 were tested for carbapenem resistance using the disc-diffusion method. Carbapenem-resistant bacteria, defined as meropenem resistant, were tested for phenotypic carbapenemase-production using the Becton Dickinson Phoenix CPO Detect assay. An intervention package, including placement of patients in cohorts, enhanced barrier precautions, enhanced discharge environmental cleaning, and CP-CRE rectal screening, was implemented from July 2019 through December 2020. During this period, all ICU patients were screened on admission, and negative patients were rescreened every 2 days or 7 days until discharge, death, or CRE-positive result. Admission prevalence and incidence of CP-CRE transmission was calculated among CP-CRE infected or colonized patients. Results: Among 599 gram-negative isolates collected, 108 were carbapenem-resistant isolates, of which 107 (99%) were CP-CRO by the phenotypic method. Most CP-CRO were Acinetobacter baumannii (42%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (36%). Of 1,206 patients, 433 (35.9%) were already colonized or infected with CP-CRE before admission to the ICU. The incidence rate (cases per 100 risk days) of CP-CRE colonization or infection during ICU treatment decreased from 11.5 before the intervention to 2.9 after the implementation of the intervention package. The average number of days to change from a negative to positive screening result in the intervention phase was 7.4, compared with 4.9 days during preintervention phase. Conclusions: Nearly all CROs isolated from our ICU are carbapenemase-producing CROs, with high presence on admission as well as new acquisition during an ICU stay. An intervention package containing enhanced infection control measures was effective in reducing CP-CRE transmission.
Objectives: During the COVID-19 surge, our hospital was overloaded due to the increasingly high volume of patients and lack of resources, which resulted in difficulties in complying with infection control and prevention (IPC) practices. In this study, we estimated healthcare-associated infection (HAI) incidence and relevant factors among COVID-19 patients in Hung Vuong hospital. Methods: This study included all SARS-CoV-2–positive adult patients hospitalized between September 1 and October 31, 2021. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of HAI in the acute-care setting was used. Results: Among 773 patients, 21 (2.72%) developed 26 separate HAIs. The cumulative days of hospitalization were 5,607. The incidence of HAI among COVID-19 patients was 4.64 per 1,000 days of hospitalization. The most frequent HAI was clinically defined pneumonia (46.2%), for which the ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rate was 41.9 per 1,000 ventilator days. Among 21 positive cultures, the most frequently isolated microorganisms were
pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and escherichia coli. HAIs were significantly associated with the number of central-line days (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.33–2.78), the number of indwelling urinary catheter days (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.05–2.03), the length of administration days (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.07–1.45), antibiotics use prior to HAIs (OR, 0.01; 95% CI, 0.01–0.21), and the number of nasal cannula days (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44–0.85). Conclusions: COVID-19 makes patients more vulnerable and may require more invasive procedures, increasing the infection risk by opportunistic pathogens like gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae. Hence, fundamental IPC recommendations should be strongly implemented.
Low birth weight (LBW) neonates show impaired growth compared with normal birth weight (NBW) neonates. Glutamine (Gln) supplementation benefits growth of weaning piglets, while the effect on neonates is not sufficiently clear. We examined the effect of neonatal Gln supplementation on piglet growth, milk intake and metabolic parameters. Sow-reared pairs of newborn LBW (0·8–1·2 kg) and NBW (1·4–1·8 kg) male piglets received Gln (1 g/kg body mass (BM)/d; Gln-LBW, Gln-NBW; n 24/group) or isonitrogenous alanine (1·22 g/kg BM/d; Ala-LBW; Ala-NBW; n 24/group) supplementation at 1–5 or 1–12 d of age (daily in three equal portions at 07:00, 12:00 and 17:00 by syringe feeding). We measured piglet BM, milk intake (1, 11–12 d), plasma metabolite, insulin, amino acid (AA) and liver TAG concentrations (5, 12 d). The Gln-LBW group had higher BM (+7·5%, 10 d, P = 0·066; 11–12 d, P < 0·05) and milk intake (+14·7%, P = 0·015) than Ala-LBW. At 5 d, Ala-LBW group had higher plasma TAG (+34·7%, P < 0·1) and lower carnosine (–22·5%, P < 0·05) than Ala-NBW and Gln-LBW, and higher liver TAG (+66·9%, P = 0·029) than Ala-NBW. At 12 d, plasma urea was higher (+37·5%, P < 0·05) with Gln than Ala supplementation. Several proteinogenic AA in plasma were lower (P < 0·05) in Ala-NBW v. Gln-NBW. Plasma arginine was higher (P < 0·05) in Gln-NBW v Ala-NBW piglets (5, 12 d). Supplemental Gln moderately improved growth and milk intake and affected lipid metabolism in LBW piglets and AA metabolism in NBW piglets, suggesting effects on intestinal and liver function.
Background: Carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria are an urgent threat to healthcare safety around the world. In Vietnam, Although surveillance and control of multidrug-resistant organisms is a national priority, information on the burden of these resistant pathogens is still scarce. At University Medical Center Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, we aimed to better understand carbapenem-resistance through 2 phases: (1) assess proportion of carbapenem-resistant gram-negative organisms that are carbapanemase-producing (CP-CRO) and (2) assess transmission burden of carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterieacea (CP-CRE) in the general intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: In the first phase, all gram-negative clinical isolates collected between November 2018 and April 2019 were tested for carbapenem-resistance using the disc-diffusion method and were defined as meropenem resistant using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2018 break point (M100-Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, 28th Edition). Carbapenem-resistant bacteria were tested for phenotypic carbapenemase-production using the Becton Dickinson Phoenix CPO Detect assay. In the second phase, we instituted CP-CRE rectal screening using CHROMagar mSuperCARBA media for all ICU patients from July through September 2019. Patients were screened on admission, and negative patients were rescreened every 2 days until discharge, death, or CRE-positive screening or culture. Admission prevalence and incidence of CP-CRE transmission was calculated among CP-CRE infected or colonized patients. Results: From November 2018 through April 2019, 599 gram-negative clinical isolates from 543 patient samples were identified. Of these, 108 were carbapenem-resistant; 107 (99%) of carbapenem-resistant isolates were carbapenemase-producing by phenotypic method. Most CP-CRO were Acinetobacter baumannii (45 of 107, 42%) or Klebsiella pneumoniae (39 of 107, 36%). During ICU CP-CRE colonization screening, the July positivity rate on admission was 40% (32 of 81), the August positivity rate on admission was 30% (21 of 71), and the September positivity rate on admission was 40% (30 of 75). Of those with negative admission screen, the proportion of new CP-CRE colonization in July was 45% (22 of 49), the proportion of new CP-CRE colonization in August was 64% (32 of 50), and the proportion of new CP-CRE colonization in September was 44% (20 of 45). Across all 3 months of screening, the proportions of CP-CRE that were Klebsiella, Citrobacter, or Enterobacter were 68% (118 of 174) and the proportion of CP-CRE that were Eschericia coli was 37% (56 of 174). The average number of days to turn from negative to positive screening result was 4.1. Conclusions: Our analysis demonstrates that nearly all carbapenem-resistant organisms at our hospital are carbapenemase producing. In the ICU, we identified a high burden of CP-CRE, attributable to high presence on admission and new acquisition in the ICU. An intervention package based on CDC-recommended enhanced infection control measures is being implemented to decrease CP-CRE transmission in the ICU.
Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the most prevalent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) globally, contributing to increased morbidity, prolonged hospital stays, and increased healthcare costs. Interventions that support prompt removal of the urinary catheter are evidence-based actions to effectively reduce CAUTI rates.1Objective: At the National Hospital of Tropical Disease (NHTD), catheter removal interventions in the intensive care unit (ICU) were implemented using quality improvement (QI) methodology to reduce CAUTI incidence and urinary catheter device utilization. Methods: Training was performed for ICU clinical staff with knowledge checks before and after the program. A bedside visual reminder of CAUTI risk and checklist to assess catheter need were implemented. Weekly compliance of provided visual reminders and checklists were measured using a simple audit tool. Device utilization ratios (DURs, ratios of device days to patient days), and CAUTI incidence rates (per 1,000 device days) were collected at baseline (July–September 2018) and quarterly thereafter until June 2019. Statistical significance was determined by an independent t test. Results: In the first quarter (October–December 2018), the CAUTI incidence rate decreased from 8.9 to 1.3 per 1,000 device days (P = .036). The ICU staff trained in CAUTI prevention, mean knowledge scores before and after training increased from 68% to 87%. The DUR decreased slightly from 0.59 to 0.55 after the first-quarter training then steadily increased in the following quarter (0.60; January–March 2019) and after the intervention (0.54; April–June 2019). CAUTI incidence rates also increased but were still lower than at baseline: 4.8 and 6.3 per 1,000 days of device use. Compliance of reminders was 51% during the first quarter, increased slightly in the second quarter 62%, then decreased to 40% during the last quarter. The nurses’ adherence to the daily checklist remained stable (>75%). Conclusions: This CAUTI prevention project was the first use of quality improvement methodology to implement change at NHTD. A trend decrease in CAUTI was observed, though a greater decrease occurred at the beginning of the intervention. Limited compliance of daily reminders is likely reflected in no statistically significant decrease in DUR. Possibly, this quality improvement project raised awareness among clinicians to improve general CAUTI prevention practices in the ICU without decreasing DUR. Given limited compliance with reminder and checklists, the intervention will be revised during the next PDSA cycle to improve adherence.
1Meddings J, Rogers MA, Krein SL, Fakih MG, Olmsted RN, Saint S. Reducing unnecessary urinary catheter use and other strategies to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection: an integrative review. BMJ Qual Saf 2014;23:277–289.
Background: Antibiotic overuse has led to increasing rates of antibiotic resistant infections and unnecessary antibiotic costs. Clinical pharmacists can play a key role in optimizing appropriate use of antimicrobials and reducing antimicrobial resistance. However, the role of clinical pharmacists in antimicrobial stewardship is new and not well established in Viet Nam. Objective: We evaluated the use of clinical pharmacists for improved antimicrobial prescribing. Methods: We assembled an antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) team consisting of a clinical pharmacist and a specialist in infection prevention and control in a 60-bed medical intensive care unit (MICU) at Hue Central Hospital in central Viet Nam. During January–September 2018, the ASP team collected baseline antibiotic prescribing days of therapy (DOT) for all antibiotics administered in the MICU. Then, from October 2018 through June 2019, the ASP team reviewed daily positive clinical bacterial cultures and susceptibility results for all patients present in the MICU. They reviewed medical charts, including antimicrobial prescriptions, during week days and only if patient was still in the ICU at the time of ASP rounds. The team recommended changes to antibiotic therapy verbally to physicians and left the decision to change antibiotic therapy to their discretion. The ASP team documented whether their recommendations were accepted or rejected. Statistical significance was determined using the Student t test. Results: The ASP team reviewed 160 medical charts and made 169 ASP recommendations: 122 (72%) to continue current treatment; 24 (14%) to monitor drug levels or obtain diagnostic tests; 10 (6%) to discontinue therapy; 6 (4%) to de-escalate therapy; 5 (3%) to adjust doses; and 2 (1%) to broaden therapy. Only 8 of the recommended changes (5%) were declined by the clinicians. The average monthly DOT for all types of antibiotics declined significantly from 2,213 to 1,681 (24% decrease; P = .04). Reductions in DOT for the most common broad-spectrum antibiotics included colistin from 303 to 276 (P = .75); imipenem-cilastatin 434 to 248 (P = .06); doripenem 150 to 144 (P = .85). Piperacillin-tazobactam increased from 122 to 142 (P = 0.75). Conclusions: We demonstrated that daily review of cultures and antibiotic use decreased overall antibiotic prescribing. Given that few recommendations included discontinuation of therapy, ASP rounds likely raised awareness for clinicians to optimize antibiotic use.
According to the Vietnamese Cardiovascular Association, one-fifth of Vietnam's population is suffering from cardiovascular disease (CVD) – now the leading cause of death in the country that accounts for about one-third of total deaths every year. Yet affordable and convenient solutions to monitor and detect CVDs remain limited and not available nation-wide. This study aimed to investigate the usability of a portable dry-electrode electrocardiography (ECG) device, paired with a mobile phone, in supporting ECG service delivery in Vietnam.
An evaluation study was designed to combine a portable dry-electrode ECG device to measure and a mobile phone to receive and record ECG signals. Healthy young college students were invited to participate in the study. Three rounds of ECG measurement were administered for each of the participants. Usability of the device was assessed through the reliability of the measures and feasibility of use during intervention. Standard error of measurement (SEM) and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) estimations were used for reliability, while structured questionnaire administered before and after measures was used for feasibility assessments.
A total of 234 participants enrolled in the study. No major difference was found in SEMs between trials one and two (4.96 percent, 90% CI: 4.61 − 5.37) and two and three (4.14 percent, 90% CI: 3.85 − 4.48). A slight improvement was observed in ICC of trials two and three (0.95, 90% CI 0.94 − 0.96) in comparison to one of trials one and two (0.94, 90% CI: 0.92 − 0.95). The SEM and average ICC of all trials were 3.41 (90% CI: 3.17 − 3.69) and 0.96 (90% CI: 0.95 − 0.96) respectively. Forty-five percent of participants thought the device would be suitable for their parents while 69 percent thought the device would benefit their grandparents the most.
High consistency of measures demonstrated that the device is reliable to provide ECG service delivery. The study also showed great potential of device usage in primary health care of Vietnam.
Soil salinity is a major limitation to legume production in many areas of the world. Identification of the genetic source of salt tolerance is critical in soybean breeding for improving soybean production in salt-affected regions. Vietnam has unique sources of soybean germplasm and varieties are grown in the area where exposure to salinity is frequent. However, there is little research on the identification of salt tolerant sources in the Vietnamese gene pool. The present study compared 18 Vietnamese soybean cultivars for their differences in salt tolerance. Under a range of NaCl stress from 0 to 200 mM NaCl, there was a large variation in salt tolerance among the 18 soybean lines evaluated. The soybean accession PI 675847 A (Vietnamese variety DT2008), was identified as a useful source of salt tolerance. During vegetative growth, PI 675847 A had lower leaf scorch scores, higher cell membrane stability, better photosynthesis and biomass accumulation under NaCl stress than the other 17 strains evaluated. In addition, PI 675847 A maintained better growth and seed yield in salt-affected soils compared with the sensitive lines. Analyses of ion contents in plant leaves under saline conditions showed that PI 675847 A was able to limit uptake and transport of Na+ and Cl−. Because of its higher productivity under saline conditions, PI 675847 A will be a useful germplasm source in soybean improvement programs for salt tolerance.
Industrial and export processing zones are considered magnets for direct foreign investment and attractive for foreign enterprises and subsidiaries of transnational corporations in Vietnam. Despite fuelling domestic economic growth by industrial development and job creation, industrial zones’ performance has caused a series of actual and potential human rights violations within workplaces and in surrounding communities. Working conditions in industrial zones in Vietnam revealed a breadth of human rights abuses such as low wages, excessive overtime, temporary contracts, deteriorated working conditions, and environmental pollution which affected not only workers and their families but also people living in the surrounding areas.
The 2011 United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (the Guiding Principles) provide a practical guidance to identify and address human rights impacts, emphasising the state duty to protect against human rights abuses, the corporate responsibility to respect human rights, and the need for greater access to victims to effective remedy. Despite numerous endorsements, the Guiding Principles face some scepticism regarding their practicability, which depends on the context of specific countries, and an inherent voluntarism on part of the enterprises’ adherence to the principles. Surya Deva argues that ‘[e] ven if the Guiding Principles are implemented by states and embraced by the business community, they might not make a significant difference in preventing and remedying corporate human rights abuses, especially in situations where there are governance gaps or companies are reluctant to be guided by the Guiding Principles’.
In fact, in developing countries whose aim is to attract foreign investment for development, governments are often unwilling to intervene in companies’ activities for fear of impairing their competitiveness. Weak states lacking the requisite governance capacity are also less able to control effectively the activities of foreign enterprises. Likewise, in authoritarian or undemocratic states where rampant corruption is common place, enterprises often lobby ruling elites to ignore their wrongdoings and disrupt the legal enforcement of human rights. At the same time, for enterprises, for the sake of profit maximisation and in the absence of a legally binding regulatory framework, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is often regarded as an added cost. This in turn undermines enterprises’ propensity to voluntarily incorporate CSR.
The coverage of health insurance as measured by enrollment rates has increased significantly in Vietnam. However, maintaining health insurance to the some groups such as the farmer, the borderline poor and informal workers, etc. has been very challenging. This paper examines the situation of health insurance drop-out among the adult population in sub-rural areas of Northern Vietnam from 2006 to 2013, and analyzes several socio-economic correlates of the health insurance drop-out situation. Data used in this paper were obtained from Health and Demographic Surveillance System located in Chi Linh district, an urbanizing area, in a northern province of Vietnam. Descriptive analyses were used to describe the level and distribution of the health insurance drop-out status. Multiple logistic regressions were used to assess associations between the health insurance drop-out status and the independent variables. A total of 32 561 adults were investigated. We found that the cumulative percentage of health insurance drop-out among the study participants was 21.2%. Health insurance drop-out rates were higher among younger age groups, people with lower education, and those who worked as small trader and other informal jobs, and belonged to the non-poor households. Given the findings, further attention toward health insurance among these special populations is needed.
The Vietnamese South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS), a cross-sectional study, was undertaken to assess the nutritional status in a nationally representative sample of children aged 0·5–11·9 years. A multi-stage cluster-randomised sampling method was used to recruit 2872 children. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemistry involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using a 24 h recall questionnaire, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Vietnamese RDA. In children aged < 5 years, approximately 14 % were stunted, 8·6 % underweight and 4·4 % thin. A higher prevalence of stunting (15·6 %) and underweight (22·2 %) was observed in school-aged children. Undernutrition was more prevalent in rural areas than in urban areas. In contrast, almost 29 % of the urban children were either overweight or obese when compared with 4 % of the overweight children and 1·6 % of the obese children in rural areas. A higher percentage of children in the age group 0·5–1·9 years and residing in rural areas had low Hb levels than those in the age group 2·0–5·9 years and residing in urban areas. In children aged 6–11 years, a small percentage had low Hb (11–14 %) and vitamin A (5–10 %) levels, but almost half the children (48–53 %) had vitamin D insufficiency. Food consumption data indicated that the children did not meet the RDA for energy, protein, Fe, vitamin A, vitamin B1 and vitamin C. Results from the SEANUTS highlight the double burden of malnutrition in Vietnam. Information from the SEANUTS can serve as an input for targeted policy development, planning and development of nutrition programmes.
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