This is the first detailed analysis of a CO2 diffuse degassing time series from Deception volcano, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, performed during an episode of anomalously high long-period (LP) seismicity. Diffuse CO2 emissions measured by an automatic geochemical station between 7 December 2009 and 13 February 2010 showed an excellent temporal agreement with the LP seismicity in December 2009. The absence of such a temporal correlation with the second burst of seismicity that occurred in late January 2010 suggests a different source for this LP activity. This was confirmed by analysis of seismic array data. The LP seismicity observed during December 2009 was caused by fluid-driven cracks that originated from pressure fluctuations in the volcano-hydrothermal systems beneath Deception volcano that were probably caused by a deep injection of undegassed magma before December 2009. The diffuse CO2 degassing data have provided evidence of the activation of at least two different sources of seismicity during the study period at Deception volcano.