The evaluation of the performance of a geological barrier, consisting essentially of a clay matrix, in the context of industrial and household waste confinement must go with the study of its hydration behavior respectively under extreme atmospheric conditions and variable mechanical soil constraints. Na-montmorillonite (Swy-2) is used, as starting materials, in order to establish the link between applied externals strain (variable relative humidity rate %RH and axial mechanical constraint) and the hydration material response. All constraints are realized at the laboratory scale. This work is achieved using oedometric testing and quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, based on the modeling approach, which consists in the comparison of experimental 00l reflections with the calculated ones deduced from structural models. This approach allows us to quantify the interlamellar space configuration and all structural changes along the c* axis. Obtained results show a decrease for the void ratio e value along the compaction/reswelling process. The “insitu” XRD analysis realized at 5%RH demonstrates hydration shift, from dehydrated water layer (i.e. 0W) to monohydrated water layer (i.e. 1W), attributed to the applied mechanical constraint. At 90%RH, the sample hydration state remains at tri-hydrated water layer (3W) with a clear interstratified trends.