We conducted a prospective environmental study for Legionella pneumophila in 15 hospitals in Pennsylvania. Hot water tanks, cold water sites, faucets, and show-erheads were surveyed four times over a one-year period. Sixty percent (9/15) of hospitals surveyed were contaminated with L pneumophila. Although contamination could not be linked to a specific municipal water supplier, most of the contaminated supplies came from rivers. Parameters found to be significantly associated with contamination included elevated hot water temperature, vertical configuration of the hot water tank, older tanks, and elevated calcium and magnesium concentrations of the water (P < 0.05). This study suggests that L pneumophila contamination could be predicted based on design of the distribution system, as well as physicochemical characteristics of the water.