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High definition video from a towed camera system was used to describe the deep-sea benthic habitats within an elongate depression located at the western margin of Rockall Bank in the Hatton–Rockall Basin. At depths greater than 1190 m, an extensive area (10 km long by 1.5 km wide) of what appeared to be reduced sediments, bacterial mats and flocculent matter indicated possible cold-seep habitat. Plumes of sediment-rich fluid were observed alongside raised elongate features that gave topographic relief to the otherwise flat seafloor. In the deepest section of the depression (1215 m) dense flocculent matter was observed suspended in the water column, in places obscuring the seabed. Away from the bacterial mats, the habitat changed rapidly to sediments dominated by tube-dwelling polychaete worms and then to deep-sea sedimentary habitats more typical for the water depth (sponges and burrowing megafauna in areas of gentle slopes, and coral gardens on steeper slopes).
School-based gardens (SBGs) are contributing to improvements in many areas of education, including nutrition, health, connectedness and engagement of students. While considerable research has been conducted in other parts of the world, research in Australia provides limited understanding of the impact of SBGs. The aim of this paper is to give a reflective viewpoint on the impact of SBGs in Australia from the perspective of an Aboriginal philosophical approach called Dadirri. The philosophy highlights an Australian Aboriginal concept, which exists but has different meanings across Aboriginal language groups. This approach describes the processes of deep and respectful listening. The study uses photovoice as a medium to engage students to become researchers in their own right. Using this methodology, students have control over how they report what is significant to them. The use of photovoice as a data collection method is contextualised within the Aboriginal philosophical approach to deep listening. For the first author, an Aboriginal researcher (Clague), the journey is to find a research process that maintains cultural integrity and resonates with the participants by affirming that a culturally sensitive approach to learning is important.
To review the current clinical practice and guidelines for testing and treating vitamin D deficiency in adolescents admitted to a tier 4 adolescent psychiatric unit in north London. The blood test results of 56 patients admitted between 2012 and 2014 were examined to determine whether vitamin D levels had been tested. For those individuals who were tested for vitamin D, results were analysed by gender and ethnicity.
Of 56 patients admitted, 48% were tested for vitamin D deficiency and in 81.5% of cases we uncovered deficiency or severe deficiency; 18.5% had the minimum levels of vitamin D for bone health as per our trust guidelines.
Adolescents within tier 4 adolescent mental health services may be at higher risk of vitamin D deficiency and so assessment of vitamin D levels should be considered as part of a standard physical health review for this group of young people.
In 1976, David Sugden and Brian John developed a classification for Antarctic landscapes of glacial erosion based upon exposed and eroded coastal topography, providing insight into the past glacial dynamics of the Antarctic ice sheets. We extend this classification to cover the continental interior of Antarctica by analysing the hypsometry of the subglacial landscape using a recently released dataset of bed topography (BEDMAP2). We used the existing classification as a basis for first developing a low-resolution description of landscape evolution under the ice sheet before building a more detailed classification of patterns of glacial erosion. Our key finding is that a more widespread distribution of ancient, preserved alpine landscapes may survive beneath the Antarctic ice sheets than has been previously recognized. Furthermore, the findings suggest that landscapes of selective erosion exist further inland than might be expected, and may reflect the presence of thinner, less extensive ice in the past. Much of the selective nature of erosion may be controlled by pre-glacial topography, and especially by the large-scale tectonic structure and fluvial valley network. The hypotheses of landscape evolution presented here can be tested by future surveys of the Antarctic ice sheet bed.
Psychosocial Interventions (PSIs) and PSI supervision underpin the delivery of early interventions for people experiencing psychosis. Early Intervention (EI) teams are relatively new in the NHS and there is currently a lack of empirical research into PSI supervision in this area. This study aimed to elicit staff views of PSI supervision and to identify any unmet supervision needs within a newly developed EI team in the UK. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 multidisciplinary team members. Descriptive statistics and a thematic analysis were used to analyse the responses. The different types of supervision available to team members, gaps in the provision of PSI supervision and aspects that supervisees found helpful and unhelpful about PSI supervision are discussed as are ideas for improving the provision of PSI supervision in EI teams. The limitations of the study and ideas for further research are also outlined.
The aim was to investigate the effects of a 48 h period of fluid, energy or combined fluid and energy restriction on salivary IgA (s-IgA) responses at rest and after exercise. Thirteen healthy males (age 21 (sem 1) years) participated in four randomised 48 h trials. In the control trial participants received their estimated energy (12 154 (sem 230) kJ/d) and water (3912 (sem 140) ml/d) requirements. On fluid restriction (FR) participants received their energy requirements and 193 (sem 19) ml water/d to drink and on energy restriction (ER) participants received their water requirements and 1214 (sem 25) kJ/d. Fluid and energy restriction (F+ER) was a combination of FR and ER. After 48 h, participants performed a 30 min treadmill time trial (TT) followed by rehydration (0–2 h) and refeeding (2–6 h). Unstimulated saliva was collected at 0, 24 and 48 h, post-TT, and 2 and 6 h post-TT. Saliva flow rate (sflw) and s-IgA (ELISA) remained unchanged in control conditions and on ER. However, 48 h on FR decreased sflw (64 %) which most probably accounted for the increase in s-IgA concentration (P < 0·01). Despite a decrease in sflw (54 %), s-IgA concentration did not increase on F+ER, resulting in a decreased s-IgA secretion rate by 24 h (0 h: 20 (sem 2); 24 h: 12 (sem 2) μg/min; P < 0·01). Post-TT s-IgA secretion rate was not lower compared with 48 h on any trial. s-IgA secretion rate returned to within 0 h values by 6 h post-TT on F+ER. In conclusion, a 24–48 h period of combined F+ER decreased s-IgA secretion rate but normalisation occurred upon refeeding.
We conducted a clinical trial to determine if prophylactic anticonvulsants in brain tumour patients (without prior seizures) reduced seizure frequency. We stopped accrual at 100 patients on the basis of the interim analysis.
One hundred newly diagnosed brain tumour patients received anticonvulsants (AC Group) or not (No AC Group) in this prospective randomized unblinded study. Sixty patients had metastatic, and 40 had primary brain tumours. Forty-six (46%) patients were randomized to the AC Group and 54 (54%) to the No AC Group. Median follow-up was 5.44 months (range 0.13 -30.1 months).
Seizures occurred in 26 (26%) patients, eleven in the AC Group and 15 in the No AC Group. Seizure-free survivals were not different; at three months 87% of the AC Group and 90% of the No AC Group were seizure-free (log rank test, p=0.98). Seventy patients died (unrelated to seizures) and survival rates were equivalent in both groups (median survival = 6.8 months versus 5.6 months, respectively; log rank test, p=0.50). We then terminated accrual at 100 patients because seizure and survival rates were much lower than expected; we would need ≥ 900 patients to have a suitably powered study.
These data should be used by individuals contemplating a clinical trial to determine if prophylactic anticonvulsants are effective in subsets of brain tumour patients (e.g. only anaplastic astrocytomas). When taken together with the results of a similar randomized trial, prophylactic anticonvulsants are unlikely to be effective or useful in brain tumour patients who have not had a seizure.
We argue that confusability between items should be distinguished from generalization between items. Shepard's data concern confusability, but the theories proposed by Shepard and by Tenenbaum & Griffiths concern generalization, indicating a gap between theory and data. We consider the empirical and theoretical work involved in bridging this gap. [Shepard; Tenenbaum & Griffiths]
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