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The addition of Cr2O3 to modern UO2 fuel modifies the microstructure so that, through the generation of larger grains during fission, a higher proportion of fission gases can be accommodated. This reduces the pellet-cladding mechanical interaction of the fuel rods, allowing the fuels to be “burned” for longer than traditional UO2 fuel, thus maximising the energy obtained. We here describe the preparation of UO2 and Cr-doped UO2 using Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), as a potential method for fuel fabrication, and for development of analogue materials for spent nuclear fuel research. Characterization of the synthesised materials confirmed that high density UO2 was successfully formed, and that Cr was present as particles at grain boundaries and also within the UO2 matrix, possibly in a reduced form due to the processing conditions. In contrast to studies of Cr-doped UO2 synthesised by other methods, no significant changes to the grain size were observed in the presence of Cr.
This volume of chapters on topics in relevance theory has been assembled in honour of Deirdre Wilson, with all its chapters written by former students and/or colleagues of hers. My aim is to describe the impact of Deirdre’s presence on the linguistics scene in London and the significance of her work in establishing the new sub-discipline of pragmatics. This work shaped the development of our thinking (hence our research and teaching) on a range of linguistic issues, especially in the realm of meaning.
The cost-effectiveness of molecular pathology testing is highly context dependent. The field is fast-moving, and national health technology assessment may not be relevant or timely for local decision makers. This study illustrates a method of context-specific economic evaluation that can be carried out in a limited timescale without extensive resources.
We established a multi-disciplinary group including an oncologist, pathologists and a health economist. We set out diagnostic and treatment pathways and costs using registry data, health technology assessments, guidelines, audit data, and estimates from the group. Sensitivity analysis varied input parameters across plausible ranges. The evaluation setting was the West of Scotland and UK NHS perspective was adopted. The evaluation was assessed against the AdHopHTA checklist for hospital-based health technology assessment.
A context-specific economic evaluation could be carried out on a timely basis using limited resources. The evaluation met all relevant criteria in the AdHopHTA checklist. Health outcomes were expected to be at least equal to the current strategy. Annual cost savings of £637,000 were estimated resulting primarily from a reduction in the proportion of patients receiving intravenous infusional chemotherapy regimens. The result was not sensitive to any parameter. The data driving the main cost saving came from a small clinical audit. We recommended this finding was confirmed in a larger population.
The method could be used to evaluate testing changes elsewhere. The results of the case study may be transferable to other jurisdictions where the organization of cancer services is fragmented.
To examine associations between availability of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores in the home and school neighbourhoods, considered separately and together, and adolescents’ fast-food and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intakes.
Cross-sectional observational study.
East London, UK.
Adolescents (n 3089; aged 13–15 years) from the Olympic Regeneration in East London (ORiEL) Study self-reported their weekly frequency of fast-food and SSB consumption. We used food business addresses collected from local authority registers to derive absolute (counts) and relative (proportions) exposure measures to fast-food restaurants and convenience stores within 800 m from home, school, and home and school combined. Associations between absolute and relative measures of the food environment and fast-food and SSB intakes were assessed using Poisson regression models with robust standard errors.
Absolute exposure to fast-food restaurants or convenience stores in the home, school, or combined home and school neighbourhoods was not associated with any of the outcomes. High SSB intake was associated with relative exposure to convenience stores in the residential neighbourhood (risk ratio=1·45; 95 % CI 1·08, 1·96) and in the home and school neighbourhoods combined (risk ratio=1·69; 95 % CI 1·11, 2·57).
We found no evidence of an association between absolute exposure to fast-food restaurants and convenience stores around home and school and adolescents’ fast-food and SSB intakes. Relative exposure, which measures the local diversity of the neighbourhood food environment, was positively associated with SSB intake. Relative measures of the food environment may better capture the environmental risks for poor diet than absolute measures.
The concept of a norm is found widely across fields including artificial intelligence, biology, computer security, cultural studies, economics, law, organizational behaviour and psychology. The concept is studied with different terminology and perspectives, including individual, social, legal and philosophical. If a norm is an expected behaviour in a social setting, then this article considers how it can be determined whether an individual is adhering to this expected behaviour. We call this process monitoring, and again it is a concept known with different terminology in different fields. Monitoring of norms is foundational for processes of accountability, enforcement, regulation and sanctioning. Starting with a broad focus and narrowing to the multi-agent systems literature, this survey addresses four key questions: what is monitoring, what is monitored, who does the monitoring and how the monitoring is accomplished.
This article investigates the tension between originality and success for ‘emerging composers’ involved in composition opportunities in the British contemporary classical music scene. It utilises survey responses from 47 new music composers to better understand their experiences of these very public signs of compositional success. Though the narrative of the original artist is still significant, conflicts arise between ‘uniqueness’ and the realities of the composition opportunity. Composers aspire to be original, but are aware that a number of other, more instrumental, factors play a crucial role in being chosen. Despite the continuing importance of opportunities to many composers’ development, there are areas that could be made more transparent to ensure they are benefitting an aesthetically diverse range of artists.
Weed resistance to herbicides occurs when herbicides are overused and can be mitigated by reducing their use. Consensus on herbicide resistance management strategies is problematic given strong industrial profit motive links in the weed science discipline.
New growth rate estimates for nine species from three genera of New Zealand Crassatellidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia), combined with existing morphometric ontogenetic descriptions, allow identification of heterochronic processes in the evolution of these genera. Both paedomorphosis (progenesis and neoteny) and peramorphosis (hypermorphosis and acceleration) have occurred within the clade. Overall, morphological variability and response to environmental pressure in this nonsiphonate group is restricted by the interplay of anatomical and life habit constraints. Stability in the substrate, predator avoidance, sluggish burrowing speed, and inability to escape by deep burial are suggested as key drivers of, or constraints on, morphological change. Two groups of shell characters are identified: heavy, armored “anchors” and elongate “snorkels,” which combine juvenile and adult traits in shells of different sizes and ages, produced by heterochronic variation in developmental timing. Anchors and snorkels both represent different “solutions” to the problems of life as a nonsiphonate, infaunal bivalve.
In western Canada, more money is spent on wild oat herbicides than on any
other weed species, and wild oat resistance to herbicides is the most
widespread resistance issue. A direct-seeded field experiment was conducted
from 2010 to 2014 at eight Canadian sites to determine crop life cycle, crop
species, crop seeding rate, crop usage, and herbicide rate combination
effects on wild oat management and canola yield. Combining 2× seeding rates
of early-cut barley silage with 2× seeding rates of winter cereals and
excluding wild oat herbicides for 3 of 5 yr (2011 to 2013) often led to
similar wild oat density, aboveground wild oat biomass, wild oat seed
density in the soil, and canola yield as a repeated canola–wheat rotation
under a full wild oat herbicide rate regime. Wild oat was similarly well
managed after 3 yr of perennial alfalfa without wild oat herbicides.
Forgoing wild oat herbicides in only 2 of 5 yr from exclusively summer
annual crop rotations resulted in higher wild oat density, biomass, and seed
banks. Management systems that effectively combine diverse and optimal
cultural practices against weeds, and limit herbicide use, reduce selection
pressure for weed resistance to herbicides and prolong the utility of
threatened herbicide tools.