Outskirts of spiral galaxies, including our own, and dwarf irregular galaxies are known to have a different environment from the solar neighborhood, e.g., low metallicities ( ~ − 1 dex). Among them, the outer Galaxy is the closest and hence is so far the only site suitable for population studies of resolved stars on the same basis as solar neighborhood. We have obtained NIR images of young clusters in the outer Galaxy, using the Subaru 8.2-m telescope, and clearly resolved cluster members with mass detection limits of ~ 0.1 M
⊙. Based on the fitting of K-band luminosity functions (KLFs) for four clusters, we found that the initial mass function (IMF) in the outer Galaxy is consistent with that in the solar neighborhood in terms of the high-mass slope and IMF peak. Upcoming observations with a higher spatial resolution and sensitivity, using JWST, TMT, etc., will allow us to extend spatially-resolved studies of the IMF to Local Group galaxies.