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Postemergence herbicides used to control weeds in the space between raised, plastic-covered beds in plasticulture production systems are typically banded, and herbicides are applied to weeds and to where weeds do not occur. To reduce the incidence of off-targeted applications, the University of Florida developed a smart-spray technology for row middles in plasticulture systems. The technology detects weed according to categories and applies herbicides only where the weeds occur. Field experiments were conducted at the Gulf Coast Research and Education Center in Balm, FL, in fall 2021 and spring 2022. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of postemergence applications of diquat and glyphosate in row middles in jalapeno pepper fields when banded or applied with smart-spray technology. The overall precision of the weed detection model was 0.92 and 0.89 for fall and spring, respectively. The actuation precision achieved was 0.86 and 1 for fall and spring, respectively. No significant differences were observed between banded and targeted applications either with glyphosate or diquat in terms of broadleaf, grass, and nutsedge weed density. No significant pepper damage was observed with either herbicide or application technique. The smart-spray technology reduced herbicide application volume by 26% and 42% in fall and spring, respectively, with no reduction in weed control or pepper yield compared to a banded application. Overall, the smart-spray technology reduced the herbicide volume applied with no reductions in weed control and no significant effects on crop yield.
Preemergence (PRE) herbicides are often banded over the entire top of raised beds for broadleaf and grass control in plasticulture vegetable production systems. However, broadleaf and grass weeds may emerge from the planting holes and tears in the plastic mulch. Banded application results in herbicides applied where no holes occur, and therefore, where they are not needed. Our objective is to identify herbicides that do not harm transplanted crops when directed at transplant holes after transplant (POST) with the aim to reduce off-target applications. Therefore, we evaluated tomato and pepper tolerance to PRE herbicides applied to transplant holes 2 wk after transplant and the subsequent effects on crop tolerance and weed density. Halosulfuron, S-metolachlor, metribuzin, and pendimethalin did not injure tomato transplants, reduce height, or reduce yield. Fomesafen caused some tomato injury (7%) but had no effect on other measured parameters in Trial I. All PRE herbicides injured peppers by ≥19%, although no effect on yield was observed. Overall, halosulfuron, S-metolachlor, metribuzin, and pendimethalin can be safely applied to tomato transplant holes 2 wk after transplant with no significant crop injury nor effects on final yield, but none of the evaluated herbicides are safe for use on pepper crops.
The past 50 yr of advances in weed recognition technologies have poised site-specific weed control (SSWC) on the cusp of requisite performance for large-scale production systems. The technology offers improved management of diverse weed morphology over highly variable background environments. SSWC enables the use of nonselective weed control options, such as lasers and electrical weeding, as feasible in-crop selective alternatives to herbicides by targeting individual weeds. This review looks at the progress made over this half-century of research and its implications for future weed recognition and control efforts; summarizing advances in computer vision techniques and the most recent deep convolutional neural network (CNN) approaches to weed recognition. The first use of CNNs for plant identification in 2015 began an era of rapid improvement in algorithm performance on larger and more diverse datasets. These performance gains and subsequent research have shown that the variability of large-scale cropping systems is best managed by deep learning for in-crop weed recognition. The benefits of deep learning and improved accessibility to open-source software and hardware tools has been evident in the adoption of these tools by weed researchers and the increased popularity of CNN-based weed recognition research. The field of machine learning holds substantial promise for weed control, especially the implementation of truly integrated weed management strategies. Whereas previous approaches sought to reduce environmental variability or manage it with advanced algorithms, research in deep learning architectures suggests that large-scale, multi-modal approaches are the future for weed recognition.
Herbicide resistance has been studied extensively in agronomic crops across North America but is rarely examined in vegetables. It is widely assumed that the limited number of registered herbicides combined with the adoption of diverse weed management strategies in most vegetable crops effectively inhibits the development of resistance. It is difficult to determine whether resistance is truly less common in vegetable crops or whether the lack of reported cases is due to the lack of resources focused on detection. This review highlights incidences of resistance that are thought to have arisen within vegetable crops. It also includes situations in which herbicide-resistant weeds were likely selected for within agronomic crops but became a problem when vegetables were grown in sequence or in adjacent fields. Occurrence of herbicide resistance can have severe consequences for vegetable growers, and resistance management plans should be adopted to limit selection pressure. This review also highlights resistance management techniques that should slow the development and spread of herbicide resistance in vegetable crops.
A survey of weed flora and basic weed management practices was conducted in commercial strawberry [Fragaria × ananassa (Weston) Duchesne ex Rozier ssp. ananassa] fields in central Florida during the 2019 to 2020 field season. Forty-one fields on 14 farms were surveyed, which represents a total of 907 ha or 23% of the acreage planted to strawberries in Florida. All conventional fields were fumigated, and combinations of chloropicrin and 1,3-dichloropropene were used on 72% of the fumigated acreage. Preemergence or postemergence herbicides were used in row middles on 100% of the conventional acreage, but preemergence herbicides applied under the plastic mulch were only used on 12% of the acreage. A total of 47 weed species were identified during the survey. The five weed species with the highest frequency were goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.], cutleaf evening primrose (Oenothera laciniata Hill), Carolina geranium (Geranium carolinianum L.), common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.), and eclipta [Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.] which occurred in 83%, 63%, 58%, 58%, and 46% of all fields surveyed, respectively. The five species with the highest overall relative abundance were E. indica, O. lanciniata, G. carolinium, A. artemisiifolia, and Brazil pusley (Richardia brasiliensis Gomes). The frequency and distribution of E. indica is of particular concern, because populations in strawberry fields are thought to be resistant to paraquat, which is the primary herbicide used for crop termination. Weed density tended to be low overall, which suggests the integrated weed management (IWM) programs adopted by most growers are effective. Mean weed density tended to be similar on conventional and organic fields and unaffected by fumigant applied the year of the survey or the number of years strawberries had been grown consecutively in a field. Weed management research moving forward should focus on the development of IWM programs for E. indica, O. lanciniata, G. carolinium, and A. artemisiifolia.
Sulfuryl fluoride (SF) is currently used as a fumigant for control of drywood termites and insects in building structures, vehicles, wood products, postharvest commodities, and food processing facilities. This research investigated the feasibility of using SF as a preplant soil fumigant for purple nutsedge control in plastic-mulched tomato production. SF treatments included SF injected through drip tapes or SF injected through drip tapes a few hours following shank injection of chloropicrin (Pic). Results revealed that SF alone at 224, 336, or 448 kg ha−1 was generally less effective compared with when it was applied in conjunction with Pic at 168 kg ha−1. SF alone provided inconsistent control of purple nutsedge. In contrast, SF + Pic was as efficacious or more efficacious on purple nutsedge than the industry standards, including 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) plus Pic and metam potassium. None of the fumigant treatments visually injured tomato plants, stunted growth, or adversely affected tomato yield. In one of the four tomato seasons, tomato plants growing in plots fumigated with SF + Pic resulted in taller tomato plants and higher markable yields. Results indicate that soil fumigation with SF + Pic is safe on plastic-mulched tomato and effectively controls purple nutsedge.
Weeds are difficult to control in potted tropical ornamentals, especially when plants are kept for extended time periods at a nursery. Management is complicated by the lack of tolerance data for many tropical species. Experiments were conducted in 2015, 2016, and 2017 at the Gulf Coast Research and Education Center in Balm, FL, to evaluate tolerance of stromanthe, croton, philodendron, arbicola, cordyline, ixora, plumbago, allamanda, bird-of-paradise, firebush, and hibiscus to granular applications of indaziflam, flumioxazin, pendimethalin + oxyfluorfen, pendimethalin + dimethenamid-P, trifluralin + oxyfluorfen + isoxaben, and trifluralin + isoxaben, and liquid applications of prodiamine + isoxaben and dimethenamid-P. Indaziflam, pendimethalin + oxyfluorfen, and trifluralin + oxyfluorfen + isoxabin were safe for use on all evaluated ornamentals except stromanthe. Dimethenamid-P and pendimethalin + oxyfluorfen were safe on all evaluated ornamentals except allamanda. Flumioxazin damaged philodendron and bird-of-paradise but was safe on all other ornamentals tested. Trifluralin + isoxaben and prodiamine + isoxaben were safe on hibiscus, firebush, and bird-of-paradise, but prodiamine + isoxaben damaged allamanda. We have identified multiple PRE herbicides that can safely be used on multiple tropical ornamentals grown in containers.
Weeds are managed in Florida strawberry production systems with plastic mulches, fumigants, and herbicides. There are limited post-transplant options to control weeds that emerge in the planting holes in the plastic-covered beds, but flumioxazin at 107 g ai ha−1 can be applied pretransplant under the plastic mulch to control broadleaf and grass weeds. Three research trials were conducted in Balm and Dover, FL, in 2017 and 2018 to evaluate tolerance of the strawberry cultivar ‘Radiance’ to flumioxazin rates ranging from 54 to 6,854 g ha−1 and to estimate herbicide persistence under the plastic mulch. Shoot damage was observed at 428 to 857 g ha−1 (4× and 8× the label rate, respectively), but a significant increase in the number of dead plants was not observed until the treatment rate was 857 g ha−1 at one site and 3,427 g ha−1 at a second site (8× and 32× the label rate, respectively). Berry yields were unaffected by rates lower than 857 g ha−1. Flumioxazin persisted throughout the growing season (approximately 150 d) with no reduction in soil concentration. We conclude that applied at the label rate, flumioxazin is a safe pretransplant weed management option for season-long weed control in strawberry with no yield reduction at rates below 8× the label rate. Caution is recommended for growers who plant a second crop on the same bed.
Metam potassium (metam-K) is a soil fumigant used commonly in Florida at the end of the tomato and pepper production season. The fumigant essentially cleans a field by killing the established weeds and crops after harvest. The goal of this project was to determine the optimal rate of metam-K for the effective termination of tomato, pepper, and established weeds such as purple nutsedge, goosegrass, and dogfennel. Tomato, pepper, and purple nutsedge at bed center were effectively terminated with the metam-K rate of 65 kg ha−1. Optimal rates required for the termination of goosegrass and dogfennel were 91 and 156 kg ha−1, respectively. In contrast, metam-K at 500 to 680 kg ha−1 was required to terminate purple nutsedge on bed edges. The reduced efficacy of metam-K at bed edge might be related to the limited movement of metam-K in soil.
Spot spraying POST herbicides is an effective approach to reduce herbicide input and weed control cost. Machine vision detection of grass or grass-like weeds in turfgrass systems is a challenging task due to the similarity in plant morphology. In this work, we explored the feasibility of using image classification with deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN), including AlexNet, GoogLeNet, and VGGNet, for detection of crabgrass species (Digitaria spp.), doveweed [Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan], dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.), and tropical signalgrass [Urochloa distachya (L.) T.Q. Nguyen] in bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.]. VGGNet generally outperformed AlexNet and GoogLeNet in detecting selected grassy weeds. For detection of P. dilatatum, VGGNet achieved high F1 scores (≥0.97) and recall values (≥0.99). A single VGGNet model exhibited high F1 scores (≥0.93) and recall values (1.00) that reliably detected Digitaria spp., M. nudiflora, P. dilatatum, and U. distachya. Low weed density reduced the recall values of AlexNet at detecting all weed species and GoogLeNet at detecting Digitaria spp. In comparison, VGGNet achieved excellent performances (overall accuracy = 1.00) at detecting all weed species in both high and low weed-density scenarios. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using DCNN for detection of grass or grass-like weeds in turfgrass systems.
Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of various environmental factors and burial depth on germination and seedling emergence of common beggar’s-tick [Bidens alba (L.) DC.] seeds at two different stages of afterripening. Mature B. alba seeds were stored at 4 C for 3 to 5 mo (new seed lot) and 13 to 15 mo (old seed lot) until experiment initiation. Germination exponentially decreased with increasing moisture stress. Germination rate decreased from 87 ± 2.9% to 13 ± 6.1% as osmotic potential decreased from 0 to −0.5 MPa and was completely inhibited at osmotic potentials below −0.83 MPa. A large portion of the new seeds tested positively photoblastic, but seeds that had afterripened for 1 additional year were partially desensitized to the light requirement. New and old seeds still germinated to a greater percentage in the presence of light than under continuous dark at temperatures ranging from 15 to 35 C. Both new and old seeds germinated over a range of temperatures from 5 to 35 C, but the optimum temperatures for germination was 15 to 30 C in the presence of light. Regardless of seed lot, seedling emergence was the greatest when seeds were sown at the soil surface. Seedling emergence was abruptly reduced when burial depth was 1 cm or greater. Based on these results, we conclude that shallow cultivation could effectively suppress this population of B. alba from emerging when incorporated into an integrated control strategy. The information obtained in this research identifies some important factors that facilitate the widespread presence of B. alba in Florida and may contribute to weed management programs.
Praxelis is an annual to short-lived perennial herb in the Asteraceae family and an emerging problematic weed species in Florida nurseries. The objective of these experiments was to determine efficacy of selected PRE and POST herbicides for control of praxelis. An additional experiment was conducted to determine efficacy of the same PRE herbicides for control of bluemink, a weed similar in appearance to praxelis that is also common in Florida. The granular herbicides dimethenamid + pendimethalin, flumioxazin, oxyfluorfen + pendimethalin, oxyfluorfen + prodiamine, and trifluralin + isoxaben were evaluated, along with spray-applied formulations of dimethenamid, indaziflam, and prodiamine + isoxaben. Flumioxazin consistently provided over 90% control of praxelis at both sites. Indaziflam control was inconsistent between the two sites, providing 100% control in Apopka but only a 22% reduction in weed counts in Balm. Oxyfluorfen + pendimethalin, oxyfluorfen + prodiamine, and prodiamine + isoxaben also provided control (57% to 97% reduction in shoot weight), albeit generally to a lesser degree than was observed with flumioxazin. All PRE herbicides provided similar control of both praxelis and bluemink, with the exception of dimethenamid and dimethenamid + pendimethalin, which reduced bluemink shoot weight more than praxelis. Clopyralid, glyphosate, and triclopyr all provided effective POST control of mature and flowering praxelis through 12 wk after treatment (WAT) and resulted in greater praxelis control than glufosinate. Results suggest that many commonly used PRE and POST herbicides would provide control of praxelis, but use of PRE and POST herbicides as well as sequential applications may be needed for long-term management.
Purple nutsedge is a troublesome weed in tomato grown in plasticulture systems. Field trials were conducted in the fall of 2017 and spring of 2018 at Balm, FL, to evaluate multiple herbicide programs applied pretransplanting (pre-T), post-transplanting (post-T), and pre-T followed by (fb) post-T for purple nutsedge control in plasticulture tomato. Pre-T treatment of sulfentrazone or S-metolachlor alone were ineffective and did not decrease purple nutsedge density compared with the nontreated control. Post-T application of halosulfuron did not reduce purple nutsedge density at 12 wk after initial treatment (WAIT) in fall 2017 but reduced the purple nutsedge density at 17 WAIT in both seasons. Pre-T sulfentrazone or S-metolachlor application fb halosulfuron applied post-T were the most effective treatments and consistently reduced purple nutsedge population in both seasons. Herbicide treatments did not injure or reduce tomato height or yield. Overall, these results suggest sequential herbicide programs, including pre-T application of sulfentrazone or S-metolachlor fb post-T application of halosulfuron generally resulted in greater purple nutsedge control compared with pre-T or post-T application only. Halosulfuron applied post-T is critical to provide season-long purple nutsedge control in plasticulture tomato.
Florida strawberry growers apply the nonselective herbicide paraquat for crop termination. Alternative herbicides are desirable because of recent label restrictions on paraquat use and the occurrence of three paraquat-resistant weed species found in strawberry fields. Field experiments were conducted at the Gulf Coast Research and Education Center at Balm, FL, to compare the efficacy of diquat, paraquat, and glufosinate and determine the optimal rate for strawberry termination. Peak control occurred at 14 d after treatment and strawberry foliage desiccation increased as herbicide rate increased. The highest rate of diquat (2,240 g ai ha−1) and paraquat (2240 g ai ha−1) provided 59% and 79% strawberry control, respectively, and 39% and 77% strawberry foliage desiccation, respectively. The highest rate of glufosinate (2,624 g ai ha−1) provided 82% and 84% strawberry control and desiccation, respectively. Regression analysis determined the rates required to provide 50% strawberry control measured 1,100, 650, and 550 g ha−1 for diquat, paraquat, and glufosinate, respectively, whereas the rates required to provide 80% strawberry control were greater than 2,240 g ha−1 for the first two herbicides and 2,020 g ha−1 for glufosinate. Herbicide rates required to provide 50% strawberry foliage desiccation measured 480, 550, and 330 g ha−1 for diquat, paraquat, and glufosinate, respectively, whereas the rates required to provide 80% strawberry foliage desiccation were greater than 2,240 g ha−1 for the first two herbicides and 1150 g ha−1 for glufosinate. Overall, these results indicate glufosinate is the most effective herbicide for strawberry termination, whereas diquat is the least effective herbicide.
Doveweed is a problematic weed species in many agricultural ecosystems as well as on roadsides and rights-of-way. Effective POST chemical control options for doveweed are limited in many cropping systems. Greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of metsulfuron-methyl dose and the impact of mixtures and sequential applications of either trifloxysulfuron-sodium or bentazon with metsulfuron-methyl for doveweed control. By 14 d after the initial treatment, applying 0.04 kg ai ha−1 metsulfuron-methyl, either once or sequentially, provided 100% control of doveweed. Application of trifloxysulfuron-sodium at 0.04 kg ai ha−1 alone or in mixture with metsulfuron-methyl (0.04 kg ha−1) did not provide consistent doveweed control nor did it reduce biomass. Trifloxysulfuron-sodium applied alone at 0.08 kg ha−1 or in a mixture with metsulfuron-methyl (0.04 kg ha−1) provided consistent doveweed control (>80%). A single application of bentazon (0.56 kg ai ha−1) was ineffective at controlling doveweed. A single application of the bentazon and metsulfuron-methyl mixture (0.56 + 0.04 kg ha−1, respectively) or sequential applications of either bentazon alone (0.56 kg ha−1) or in mixture with metsulfuron-methyl (0.04 kg ha−1) provided excellent doveweed control (100%) by 35 d after treatment. Overall, single applications of metsulfuron-methyl (0.02 to 0.17 kg ha−1) or mixtures of metsulfuron-methyl with trifloxysulfuron-sodium (0.04 + 0.08 kg ha−1, respectively) or bentazon (0.04 + 0.56 kg ha−1, respectively) controlled doveweed and may be useful for enhancing the control spectrum for other weeds. Sequential applications of the bentazon and metsulfuron-methyl mixture (0.56 + 0.04 kg ha−1, respectively) provided doveweed control and are a resistance-management strategy for doveweed.
POST weed control atop the bed during strawberry production is limited to hand weeding, clopyralid, and acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitors. Identification of additional modes of action is desirable to increase available options for producers and alleviate herbicide resistance concerns. The study objective was to screen sulfonylurea herbicides for safety of strawberry coordinated with efficacy against Carolina geranium. Herbicide treatments included metsulfuron-methyl, flazasulfuron, foramsulfuron, thifensulfuron-methyl, trifloxysulfuron-sodium, and rimsulfuron. Strawberry plants were heavily damaged by all herbicides apart from foramsulfuron. Although the strawberry plant was dramatically affected by the evaluated herbicides, demonstrating strong epinasty, there were no differences in resultant biomass at 31 d after treatment (DAT) compared to controls. Carolina geranium was severely injured by metsulfuron-methyl, flazasulfuron, and thifensulfuron-methyl, and moderately injured by foramsulfuron. There were consistent reductions in biomass by 31 DAT by metsulfuron-methyl and flazasulfuron. Overall, metsulfuron-methyl and flazasulfuron are suitable candidates for Carolina geranium control in row-middles. Foramsulfuron is a suitable candidate for additional field-based screening for utility in POST use in strawberry production atop the bed. Consideration toward doses, surfactants, timings, and cultivar tolerance may be necessary to minimize injury as observed in the greenhouse (15% to 20%).
Goldenrods are common perennial weeds in lowbush blueberry fields in Nova Scotia. Management options are limited to mowing and suppression with POST mesotrione applications. The objectives of this research were to (1) compare efficacy of single versus sequential nonbearing-year POST mesotrione applications on goldenrod (2) identify the optimal interval between sequential POST mesotrione applications (3) evaluate nonbearing-year POST bicyclopyrone applications on goldenrod, and (4) evaluate nonbearing-year summer and fall herbicide spot treatments on goldenrod. POST mesotrione applications at 144 g ai ha−1 caused 39% to 77% injury but did not reduce goldenrod shoot density. In contrast, mesotrione applications at 144 g ai ha−1 followed by sequential mesotrione application at 14, 21, or 28 days after initial treatment caused greater than 90% injury to goldenrod and reduced both nonbearing- and bearing-year shoot density. POST bicyclopyrone applications at 50 g ai ha−1 caused 69% to 80% injury to goldenrod but did not reduce shoot density. A bicyclopyrone plus mesotrione tank mixture did not improve goldenrod control relative to mesotrione or bicyclopyrone alone. Summer spot applications of glyphosate (7.24 g ae L water−1), glufosinate (0.75 g ai L water−1), and mesotrione (0.72 g ai L water−1) consistently injured goldenrod and reduced both nonbearing- and bearing-year shoot density. Summer spot applications of bicyclopyrone (0.25 g ai L water−1), flazasulfuron (0.31 g ai L water−1), dicamba (1 g ae L water−1), dicamba plus diflufenzopyr (0.7 g ae L water−1 plus 0.3 g ai L water−1), triclopyr (1.68 g ai L water−1), clopyralid (0.08 g ai L water−1), tribenuron methyl (0.2 g ai L water−1), and foramsulfuron (0.2 g ai L water−1) injured goldenrod but did not consistently reduce shoot density. When these herbicides were evaluated as fall spot applications, only glyphosate reduced goldenrod shoot density in the year after application.
Row-middle weed control in Florida vegetable production is challenging and often necessitates several PRE and POST herbicide applications. Coordinating POST spray applications with emergence timings should increase herbicide efficacy by targeting susceptible growth stages. Most published emergence models were developed in temperate climates, and adapting them to subtropical climates can be complex and requires reductionist insights into seed ecology, particularly germination and dormancy. The study objective was to examine the influence of temperature and osmotic potential on seed germination of carpetweed (Mollugo verticillata L.), Carolina geranium (Geranium carolinianum L.), eclipta [Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.], and goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.]. Mollugo verticillata seed germination was positively photoblastic, with increased germination at high temperatures (≥35 C), more so with high fluctuating temperatures (35/20 and 35/25 C), and occurred at osmotic potentials as low as −0.5 MPa. Geranium carolinianum seed germinated between 10 and 20 C in light or darkness and at osmotic potentials as low as −0.4 MPa. Eclipta prostrata seed germination was entirely positively photoblastic, occurring optimally between 15 and 25 C and at osmotic potentials as low as −1 MPa. Eleusine indica seed germination demonstrated some degree of positive photoblasticity, with greater germination in the light, peak germination at 35 C, and germination occurring at osmotic potentials as low as −0.5 MPa. Described germination ecology for selected species will provide insights for building ecology-based growing degree-day accounting restrictions for empirically derived emergence models.
Herbicides are the foundation for row-middle weed control in Florida plasticulture production. Paraquat is commonly used as a burndown herbicide, and resistance issues have subsequently developed. Halosulfuron is mixed with PRE and POST herbicides to provide additional control of nutsedge. The objective of the study was to determine glufosinate efficacy on weeds emerging in the row-middle and suitability in mixture with halosulfuron for nutsedge control. For total weed control, the high dose of glufosinate (983 g ai ha–1) gave the highest overall control (98% and 64% at 4 wk after treatment for experiments 1 and 2, respectively), and the low rate of glufosinate (656 g ha–1) (67% and 39%) gave results comparable to paraquat (57% and 44%). The high glufosinate dose and paraquat gave comparable control of Brazil pusley (74% to 77% control). Glufosinate + halosulfuron mixture had lower efficacy on Brazil pusley than halosulfuron + paraquat mixture. Glufosinate application reduced grass densities, whereas paraquat did not. Increasing the glufosinate dose did not further decrease grass densities. Similar trends in grass control were also demonstrated in their respective mixtures. Mixing halosulfuron with glufosinate or paraquat did not provide consistent reductions in nutsedge densities, nor did adding paraquat or glufosinate further reduce densities compared with halosulfuron alone for the 4-wk study period. Both paraquat and glufosinate antagonized halosulfuron and reduced efficacy on nutsedge. Compared to controls, there was a reduction between expected and actual nutsedge control for paraquat and glufosinate (25% and 36%), respectively. For total weed control, glufosinate is a suitable alternative to paraquat for row-middle weed management in vegetable production.
Broadleaf infestations interfere with Florida strawberry production. Broadleaf POST herbicide options applied atop the crop are limited to synthetic auxins and not suitable for conventional multi-cropping and organic systems. Reducing light access and interception during weed emergence may reduce interference. Light-limited growth of two problematic broadleaves, black medic and Carolina geranium, and the most commonly grown strawberry cultivar (‘Florida Radiance’), were examined in the greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized, and the trial was repeated. Black medic was susceptible to reductions in incoming solar radiation, wherein reducing the daily maximum available light from 331 to 94 µmol m−2 s−1 reduced leaf number and area by 93% and 89%, respectively. Carolina geranium growth was less susceptible to reduced-light treatments, with leaf area and number each reduced by 66% when light was reduced from 331 to 94 µmol m−2 s−1. Belowground, Carolina geranium biomass was similarly reduced between the 331 and 94 µmol m−2 s−1 treatments. Strawberry was relatively tolerant to shading at 155 µmol m−2 s−1, but further reductions did increase mortality. Shade-induced weed suppression is a promising alternative strategy for conventional and organic Florida strawberry production. Targeted application during periods of weed emergence may play a role within integrated pest management strategies. This approach is most feasible for black medic management but may be useful for Carolina geranium in concert with other strategies.