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The preceding chapters have shown that, in spite of the commonly accepted classification of LF as a pidgin, a close scrutiny of the variety recorded in the Dictionnaire reveals a number of non-pidgin-like characteristics. The present chapter considers the place of the Dictionnaire’s LF in the taxonomy of outcomes of language contact. Revisiting the key structural features of this variety of LF, it shows that, while some of the features are consistent with a pidginization account of its origin, others receive a more convincing explanation within the framework of koineization. Following a background discussion of the issue in Section 9.1, Section 9.2 focuses on the structural characteristics of LF which may be attributed to pidginization processes, and Section 9.3 on those which are attributable to koineization. Section 9.4 concludes the chapter, and the book, by discussing the view of LF as a structural continuum ranging from basilectal lects, more typical of speakers with non-Romance linguistic backgrounds, to acrolectal ones, more typical of speakers of Romance languages.
This chapter takes a look at the orthography of Lingua Franca in the Dictionnaire de la langue franque and examines the sound inventory and phonological processes that the orthography reflects. Following preliminary observations (Section 4.1), the chapter discusses the orthographic representation and phonological processes of Lingua Franca vowels (in Section 4.2) and consonants (in Section 4.3). Section 4.4 addresses the aspects of Lingua Franca phonology revealed by the phonological adaptation of French words. Section 4.5 zooms in on the various influences on the Dictionnaire’s orthography, expanding and supplementing the earlier discussion of this issue in Chapter 3. Section 4.6 summarizes the main issues, situating the sound inventory of Lingua Franca in the context of the hypothesized role of inter-Romance koineization in its genesis.
This chapter substantiates the hypothesis that the key publication on Lingua Franca, the Dictionnaire de la langue franque ou petit mauresque published anonymously in 1830, is based on the work of the US consular officer William Brown Hodgson carried out in Algiers in the late 1820s. By removing the anonymity of the Dictionnaire, and by linking its compilation to the activities of the American consulate in Algiers shortly before the French invasion of Algeria, the hypothesis presented in this chapter opens new avenues for both linguistic and historical research. The chapter is structured as follows. Section 2.1 introduces the argument. Section 2.2 lays out the structure of the Dictionnaire and highlights its importance for Lingua Franca scholarship. Section 2.3 contains the bulk of the chapter, and Section 2.4 provides a succinct summary of the main points.
This chapter takes a look at the Lingua Franca lexicon as reflected in the Dictionnaire de la langue franque. Section 5.1 offers a bird’s-eye view of the etymological sources of the lexicon. Section 5.2 focuses on the core vocabulary of the Swadesh wordlists. Section 5.3 addresses the layered nature of the Lingua Franca lexicon, focusing on its Romance and “exotic” (Turkish and Arabic) components. Section 5.4 scrutinizes selected typological features of the Lingua Franca lexicon in relation to properties which have been identified as characteristic of pidgin lexicons, such as typical vocabulary sources and sizes; and discusses features that specifically characterize the lexicon of Lingua Franca: doublets, suppletion patterns, and selected aspects of lexical typology and idiomatic structure. It is shown throughout that the lexicon of the Dictionnaire’s Lingua Franca displays detailed, specific, and interlocking continuity with the lexical and idiomatic features of its Romance lexifiers. Section 5.5 recapitulates the main points.
In 1830, the printshop Typographie de Feissat ainé et Demonchy, located at Rue Cannebière 19 in Marseilles, published a slim volume called Dictionnaire de la langue franque ou petit mauresque, suivi de quelques dialogues familièrs et d’un vocabulaire de mots arabes les plus usuels; à l’usage des Français en Afrique [Dictionary of Lingua Franca or Petit Mauresque, followed by a few familiar dialogues and a vocabulary of the most common Arabic words, for the use of the French in Africa] (Anonymous 1830a; the Dictionnaire). This work would effect a permanent change in the bleak documentary landscape that underlies our knowledge of Mediterranean Lingua Franca (LF), a language which has fascinated generations of scholars.
The preceding chapter has substantiated the hypothesis that the basis for the Dictionnaire de la langue franque was laid by the diplomat scholar William B. Hodgson who conducted research on LF in Algiers. The present chapter develops our knowledge of the Dictionnaire’s sources by focusing on the publications which provided Hodgson with conceptual models for this work. Section 3.1 introduces two Italian grammars which were used as models for the Dictionnaire’s preface, LF dialogues, and Arabic vocabulary: Veneroni (1800) and Vergani (1823). Section 3.2 examines the use of the learner’s dialogues in Vergani (1823) as a model for the Dictionnaire’s dialogues in LF.
This chapter examines the word formation patterns of the Dictionnaire’s LF. Its purpose is twofold: to provide a descriptive analysis of the patterns, and to situate them in relation to the word formation patterns of LF’s Romance lexifiers and those of pidgins. To this end, the chapter first surveys the word formation mechanisms of the main Romance lexifiers of LF and pidgins (in Sections 6.1 and 6.2, respectively). Section 6.3 describes the predominant word formation pattern attested in the Dictionnaire and provides a preliminary discussion of LF noun and verb morphology. Sections 6.4–6.8 look, respectively, at suffixation, prefixation, suppletion, compounding, and multiword lexical expressions. Section 6.9 examines how the different word formation mechanisms interact in a single functional domain, that of valency/transitivity alternations. Section 6.10 summarizes the findings and relates them to the question of LF’s taxonomic status.
The preceding two chapters have identified a substantial degree of continuity between the Dictionnaire’s LF and its Romance lexifiers in the domains of inflection and word formation. The present chapter continues this endeavor by focusing on LF’s syntax. Section 8.1 looks at the structure of the noun phrase, and Sections 8.2–8.6 examine, respectively, those of the copular, verbal, interrogative, and imperative clauses, and of complex sentences. The syntactic structures of LF are compared with the corresponding structures in one or both of its main lexifiers to demonstrate probable antecedents or parallels for the constructions and word order features seen in LF. In the concluding section, the structural features and developmental trends of the LF syntax are situated in relation to those of its Romance lexifiers.