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To estimate the impact of comorbid diabetes on caregiver stress in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients from the Impact of Cholinergic Treatment Use (ICTUS) study.
Using the Data from the ICTUS study, diabetes mellitus (DM) was recorded at baseline and caregiver burden was assessed twice per year using the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) scale. The three-factorial model of ZBI (the effect on the social and personal life of caregivers, the psychological burden and the feelings of guilt) was adopted. Linear mixed models were used to examine the relation between DM and the scores of ZBI.
The present analyses were conducted on 1,264 AD subjects. A total of 156 patients (12.3%) had DM with taking antidiabetic medication and/or self-report of a history. At baseline, the caregivers of patients with or without DM had similar ZBI global scores and similar scores of three different factors of ZBI. Unadjusted and adjusted models both indicated that ZBI global score increased over a 24-month follow-up without significant effect of DM. Similarly, unadjusted model showed that DM was not determining any significant difference in the score of any factor. However, adjusted model indicated that in diabetic patients, the scores of the social and personal life of caregivers and the psychological burden increased more slowly than those in non-diabetic patients (p = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively).
DM may affect the caregivers’ daily social and personal life and psychological burden in AD patients. It is necessary for further research.
Trichotillomania (repetitive hair-pulling) is an Axis I psychiatric disorder whose neurobiological basis is incompletely understood. Whole-brain trichotillomania neuroimaging studies are lacking.
To investigate grey and white matter abnormalities over the whole brain in patients with trichotillomania.
Eighteen patients with DSM–IV trichotillomania and 19 healthy controls undertook structural magnetic resonance imaging after providing written informed consent. Differences in grey and white matter were investigated using computational morphometry.
Patients with trichotillomania showed increased grey matter densities in the left striatum, left amygdalo-hippocampal formation, and multiple (including cingulate, supplementary motor, and frontal) cortical regions bilaterally.
Trichotillomania was associated with structural grey matter changes in neural circuitry implicated in habit learning, cognition and affect regulation. These findings inform animal models of the disorder and highlight key regions of interest for future translational research.
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