To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
It is unknown how much variation in adult mental health problems is associated with differences between societal/cultural groups, over and above differences between individuals.
To test these relative contributions, a consortium of indigenous researchers collected Adult Self-Report (ASR) ratings from 16 906 18- to 59-year-olds in 28 societies that represented seven culture clusters identified in the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavioral Effectiveness study (e.g. Confucian, Anglo). The ASR is scored on 17 problem scales, plus a personal strengths scale. Hierarchical linear modeling estimated variance accounted for by individual differences (including measurement error), society, and culture cluster. Multi-level analyses of covariance tested age and gender effects.
Across the 17 problem scales, the variance accounted for by individual differences ranged from 80.3% for DSM-oriented anxiety problems to 95.2% for DSM-oriented avoidant personality (mean = 90.7%); by society: 3.2% for DSM-oriented somatic problems to 8.0% for DSM-oriented anxiety problems (mean = 6.3%); and by culture cluster: 0.0% for DSM-oriented avoidant personality to 11.6% for DSM-oriented anxiety problems (mean = 3.0%). For strengths, individual differences accounted for 80.8% of variance, societal differences 10.5%, and cultural differences 8.7%. Age and gender had very small effects.
Overall, adults' self-ratings of mental health problems and strengths were associated much more with individual differences than societal/cultural differences, although this varied across scales. These findings support cross-cultural use of standardized measures to assess mental health problems, but urge caution in assessment of personal strengths.
The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of adiposity-based chronic disease (ABCD) and its association with anthropometric indices in the Mexican population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 514 adults seen at a clinical research unit. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinology/AACE/ACE criteria were used to diagnose ABCD by first identifying subjects with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and those with BMI of 23–24·9 kg/m2 and waist circumference ≥ 80 cm in women or ≥ 90 cm in men. The presence of metabolic and clinical complications associated with adiposity, such as factors related to metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia and arterial hypertension, were subsequently evaluated. Anthropometric indices related to cardiometabolic risk factors were then determined. The results showed the prevalence of ABCD was 87·4 % in total, 91·5 % in men and 86 % in women. The prevalence of ABCD stage 0 was 2·4 %, stage 1 was 33·7 % and stage 2 was 51·3 %. The prevalence of obesity according to BMI was 57·6 %. The waist/hip circumference index (prevalence ratio (PR) = 7·57; 95 % CI 1·52, 37·5) and the conicity index (PR = 3·46; 95 % CI 1·34, 8·93) were better predictors of ABCD, while appendicular skeletal mass % and skeletal muscle mass % decreased the risk of developing ABCD (PR = 0·93; 95 % CI 0·90, 0·96; and PR = 0·95; 95 % CI 0·93, 0·98). In conclusion, the prevalence of ABCD in our study was 87·4 %. This prevalence increased with age. It is important to emphasise that one out of two subjects had severe obesity-related complications (ABCD stage 2).
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are considered markers of insulin resistance (IR) in subjects with obesity. In this study, we evaluated whether the presence of the SNP of the branched-chain aminotransferase 2 (BCAT2) gene can modify the effect of a dietary intervention (DI) on the plasma concentration of BCAA in subjects with obesity and IR. A prospective cohort study of adult subjects with obesity, BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR ≥ 2·5) no diagnosed chronic disease, underwent a DI with an energy restriction of 3140 kJ/d and nutritional education for 1 month. Anthropometric measurements, body composition, blood pressure, resting energy expenditure, oral glucose tolerance test results, serum biochemical parameters and the plasma amino acid profile were evaluated before and after the DI. SNP were assessed by the TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. A total of eighty-two subjects were included, and fifteen subjects with a BCAT2 SNP had a greater reduction in leucine, isoleucine, valine and the sum of BCAA. Those subjects also had a greater reduction in skeletal muscle mass, fat-free mass, total body water, blood pressure, muscle strength and biochemical parameters after 1 month of the DI and adjusting for age and sex. This study demonstrated that the presence of the BCAT2 SNP promotes a greater reduction in plasma BCAA concentration after adjusting for age and sex, in subjects with obesity and IR after a 1-month energy-restricted DI.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.