The present work reports the existence of extended parental care in a hermit crab species of the genus Calcinus. The species shows a high energetic investment in egg production, only producing one to six large-sized eggs. The larval development is extremely abbreviated, with the larvae hatching at an advanced zoeal stage, a rather uncommon feature among marine and non-symbiotic decapods. The sequential moults end in a glaucothoe-type larval stage that is retained inside the female's host gastropod shell, probably in complete lecithotrophy. The high maternal reproductive investment displayed by this species is certainly maximized through the retention of juveniles until they enter a suitable gastropod shell, since it considerably reduces the chances of intra- or interspecific predation.