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Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) caused by infection with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a relatively rare but potentially fatal multisystem syndrome clinically characterised by acute kidney injury. This study aimed to provide robust estimates of paediatric HUS incidence in England, Wales, Northern Ireland, and the Republic of Ireland by using data linkage and case reconciliation with existing surveillance systems, and to describe the characteristics of the condition. Between 2011 and 2014, 288 HUS patients were included in the study, of which 256 (89.5%) were diagnosed as typical HUS. The crude incidence of paediatric typical HUS was 0.78 per 100,000 person-years, although this varied by country, age, gender, and ethnicity. The majority of typical HUS cases were 1 to 4 years old (53.7%) and female (54.0%). Clinical symptoms included diarrhoea (96.5%) and/or bloody diarrhoea (71.9%), abdominal pain (68.4%), and fever (41.4%). Where STEC was isolated (59.3%), 92.8% of strains were STEC O157 and 7.2% were STEC O26. Comparison of the HUS case ascertainment to existing STEC surveillance data indicated an additional 166 HUS cases were captured during this study, highlighting the limitations of the current surveillance system for STEC for monitoring the clinical burden of STEC and capturing HUS cases.
People with severe mental illness (SMI) have more physical health conditions than the general population, resulting in higher rates of hospitalisations and mortality. In this study, we aimed to determine the rate of emergency and planned physical health hospitalisations in those with SMI, compared to matched comparators, and to investigate how these rates differ by SMI diagnosis.
We used Clinical Practice Research DataLink Gold and Aurum databases to identify 20,668 patients in England diagnosed with SMI between January 2000 and March 2016, with linked hospital records in Hospital Episode Statistics. Patients were matched with up to four patients without SMI. Primary outcomes were emergency and planned physical health admissions. Avoidable (ambulatory care sensitive) admissions and emergency admissions for accidents, injuries and substance misuse were secondary outcomes. We performed negative binomial regression, adjusted for clinical and demographic variables, stratified by SMI diagnosis.
Emergency physical health (aIRR:2.33; 95% CI 2.22–2.46) and avoidable (aIRR:2.88; 95% CI 2.60–3.19) admissions were higher in patients with SMI than comparators. Emergency admission rates did not differ by SMI diagnosis. Planned physical health admissions were lower in schizophrenia (aIRR:0.80; 95% CI 0.72–0.90) and higher in bipolar disorder (aIRR:1.33; 95% CI 1.24–1.43). Accident, injury and substance misuse emergency admissions were particularly high in the year after SMI diagnosis (aIRR: 6.18; 95% CI 5.46–6.98).
We found twice the incidence of emergency physical health admissions in patients with SMI compared to those without SMI. Avoidable admissions were particularly elevated, suggesting interventions in community settings could reduce hospitalisations. Importantly, we found underutilisation of planned inpatient care in patients with schizophrenia. Interventions are required to ensure appropriate healthcare use, and optimal diagnosis and treatment of physical health conditions in people with SMI, to reduce the mortality gap due to physical illness.
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