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Understanding the association between diet quality and cardiometabolic risk by education level is important for preventing increased cardiometabolic risk in the Mexican population, especially considering pre-existing disparities in diet quality. The present study examined the cross-sectional association of overall diet quality with cardiometabolic risk, overall and by education level, among Mexican men and women.
Cardiometabolic risk was defined by using biomarkers and diet quality by the Mexican Diet Quality Index. We computed sex-specific multivariable logistic regression models.
Mexican men (n 634) and women (n 875) participating in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012.
We did not find associations of diet quality with cardiometabolic risk factors in the total sample or in men by education level. However, we observed that for each 10-unit increase in the dietary quality score, the odds of diabetes risk in women with no reading/writing skills was 0·47 (95 % CI 0·26, 0·85) relative to the odds in women with ≥10 years of school (referent). Similarly, for each 10-unit increase of the dietary quality score, the odds of having three v. no lipid biomarker level beyond the risk threshold in lower-educated women was 0·27 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·63) relative to the odds in higher-educated women.
Diet quality has a stronger protective association with some cardiometabolic disease risk factors for lower- than higher-educated Mexican women, but no association with cardiometabolic disease risk factors among men. Future research will be needed to understand what diet factors could be influencing the cardiometabolic disease risk disparities in this population.
The present study evaluated the association of two measures of diet quality
with BMI and waist circumference (WC), overall and by education level, among
Mexican men and women.
We constructed two a priori indices of diet quality, the
Mexican Diet Quality Index (MxDQI) and the Mexican Alternate Healthy Eating
Index (MxAHEI), which we examined relative to BMI and WC. We computed
sex-specific multivariable linear regression models for the total sample and
by education level.
Mexican men (n 954) and women (n 1356)
participating in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012.
Total dietary scores were not associated with BMI in men and women, but total
MxDQI was inversely associated with WC in men (−0·10, 95 % CI
−0·20, −0·004 cm). We also found that some
results differed by education level in men. For men with the lowest
education level, a one-unit increase in total MxDQI and MxAHEI score was
associated with a mean reduction in BMI of 0·11 (95 % CI
−0·18, 0·04) and 0·18 (95 % CI
−0·25, −0·10) kg/m2, respectively.
Likewise, a one-unit increase in total MxDQI and MxAHEI score was associated
with a mean change in WC of −0·30 (95 % CI
−0·49, −0·11) and −0·53 (95 % CI
−0·75, −0·30) cm, respectively, in men with the
lowest level of education. In women, the association of diet quality scores
with BMI and WC was not different by education level.
Our findings suggest that a higher diet quality in men with low but not high
education is associated with lower BMI and WC.
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