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Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a significant clinical and public health concern. Understanding the distribution of CRE colonization and developing a coordinated approach are key components of control efforts. The prevalence of CRE in the District of Columbia is unknown. We sought to determine the CRE colonization prevalence within healthcare facilities (HCFs) in the District of Columbia using a collaborative, regional approach.
This study included 16 HCFs in the District of Columbia: all 8 acute-care hospitals (ACHs), 5 of 19 skilled nursing facilities, 2 (both) long-term acute-care facilities, and 1 (the sole) inpatient rehabilitation facility.
Inpatients on all units excluding psychiatry and obstetrics-gynecology.
CRE identification was performed on perianal swab samples using real-time polymerase chain reaction, culture, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). Prevalence was calculated by facility and unit type as the number of patients with a positive result divided by the total number tested. Prevalence ratios were compared using the Poisson distribution.
Of 1,022 completed tests, 53 samples tested positive for CRE, yielding a prevalence of 5.2% (95% CI, 3.9%–6.8%). Of 726 tests from ACHs, 36 (5.0%; 95% CI, 3.5%–6.9%) were positive. Of 244 tests from long-term-care facilities, 17 (7.0%; 95% CI, 4.1%–11.2%) were positive. The relative prevalence ratios by facility type were 0.9 (95% CI, 0.5–1.5) and 1.5 (95% CI, 0.9–2.6), respectively. No CRE were identified from the inpatient rehabilitation facility.
A baseline CRE prevalence was established, revealing endemicity across healthcare settings in the District of Columbia. Our study establishes a framework for interfacility collaboration to reduce CRE transmission and infection.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Thoracic Society recommend obtaining cultures of at least three sputum specimens for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) from patients in whom tuberculosis (TB) is suspected. On the basis of this, most hospitals isolate patients with suspected TB for 3 days or more until three smear (not culture) results are negative. Our objective was to evaluate the predictive value and sensitivity of these smears.
Four urban medical centers.
The posttest probability of TB given sequential negative AFB smears from 274 patients isolated for suspected TB and the sensitivity of sequential AFB smears from 209 patients with positive results on culture for pulmonary TB were measured.
The posttest probabilities of having TB given one, two, and three negative AFB smears were low: 1.1% (3 of 265; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 0.23% to 3.27%), 0.4% (1 of 262; CI95, 0% to 2.1%), and 0% (0 of 260; CI95, 0% to 1.4%), respectively. Among the 209 patients with positive results on culture for pulmonary TB, 169 (81%) had an expectorated sputum specimen sent, of which 91 (54%) were positive for AFB. Forty (24%) of the 169 patients had a second expectorated sputum specimen sent after the results of the first specimen were negative; only 6 (15%) of these had positive AFB smears. None of the 10 patients in whom the first two expectorated sputum samples yielded an AFB smear without an organism had a third AFB smear that was positive.
Unless there is high clinical suspicion of pulmonary TB in a specific patient, the use of three AFB smears on expectorated sputa is a rational approach to discontinuing isolation for patients with suspected TB.
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