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FeCrAl alloys are among the best and most mature accident tolerant fuel cladding candidates produced to date, due to their superior combination of mechanical properties and stability at elevated temperatures. For fuel cladding applications, these materials are drawn into tubes with plugs welded to the ends. The mechanical properties of such welds and the impact on cladding performance have not been fully investigated. A novel mesoscale mechanical test and a variety of microscale tests were performed to evaluate a range of properties including nanoindentation hardness, compression and shear yield strengths, and tensile strengths and elongations. Micromechanical testing generally matched the trends of the larger mesoscale testing, with nanoindentation reproducing the trend the best, although some discrepancies existed in regions with low dislocation content. Mesoscale tensile testing showed good correlation with macroscale tests and revealed that the plug heat-affected zone possessed the lowest strength and ductility. This indicated that failure would occur first in or near this region.
The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) guidelines recommend the Royal Free Hospital-Nutritional Prioritizing Tool (RFH-NPT) to identify malnutrition risk in patients with liver disease. However, little is known about the application of the RFH-NPT to screen for the risk of malnutrition in China, where patients primarily suffer from hepatitis virus-related cirrhosis. A total of 155 cirrhosis patients without liver cancer or uncontrolled co-morbid illness were enrolled in this prospective study. We administered the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002), RFH-NPT, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and Liver Disease Undernutrition Screening Tool (LDUST) to the patients within 24 h after admission and performed follow-up observations for 1·5 years. The RFH-NPT and NRS-2002 had higher sensitivities (64·8 and 52·4 %) and specificities (60 and 70 %) than the other tools with regard to screening for malnutrition risk in cirrhotic patients. The prevalence of nutritional risk was higher under the use of the RFH-NPT against the NRS-2002 (63 v. 51 %). The RFH-NPT tended more easily to detect malnutrition risk in patients with advanced Child–Pugh classes (B and C) and lower Model for End-stage Liver Disease scores (<15) compared with NRS-2002. RFH-NPT score was an independent predictive factor for mortality. Patients identified as being at high malnutrition risk with the RFH-NPT had a higher mortality rate than those at low risk; the same result was not obtained with the NRS-2002. Therefore, we suggest that using the RFH-NPT improves the ability of clinicians to predict malnutrition risk in patients with cirrhosis primarily caused by hepatitis virus infection at an earlier stage.
The Antarctic subglacial drilling rig (ASDR) is designed to recover 105 mm-diameter ice cores up to 1400 m depth and 41.5 mm-diameter bedrock cores up to 2 m in length. In order to ensure safe and convenient drilling, drilling auxiliaries are designed to support fieldwork and servicing. These auxiliaries are subdivided into several systems for power supply, drill tripping in the borehole, ice core and chip processing, and drill servicing and maintenance. The required equipment also includes two generators, a drilling winch with a cable, logging winch with a cable, control desk, pipe handler with a fixed clamp, chip chamber vibrator, centrifuge, emergency devices and fitting and electrical tools. Additionally, several environmental protective measures such as a new liquid-tight casing with a thermal casing shoe and a bailing device for recovering drilling fluid from the borehole were designed. Most of the auxiliaries were tested during the summer of 2018–2019 near Zhongshan Station, East Antarctica while drilling to the bedrock to a depth of 198 m.
Drilling to the bedrock of ice sheets and glaciers offers unique opportunities for examining the processes occurring in the bed. Basal and subglacial materials contain important paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental records and provide a unique habitat for life; they offer significant information regarding the sediment deformation beneath glaciers and its effects on the subglacial hydraulic system and geology. The newly developed and tested Antarctic subglacial drilling rig (ASDR) is designed to recover ice and bedrock core samples from depths of up to 1400 m. All of the drilling equipment is installed inside a movable, sledge-mounted, temperature-controlled and wind-protected drilling shelter and workshop. To facilitate helicopter unloading of the research vessel, the shelter and workshop can be disassembled, with individual parts weighing <2–3 tons. The entire ASDR system weighs ~55 tons, including transport packaging. The ASDR is designed to be transported to the chosen site via snow vehicles and would be ready for drilling operations within 2–3 d after arrival. The ASDR was tested during the 2018–2019 summer season near Zhongshan Station, East Antarctica. At the test site, 2-week drilling operations resulted in a borehole that reached bedrock at a depth of 198 m.
A new, modified version of the cable-suspended Ice and Bedrock Electromechanical Drill (IBED) was designed for drilling in firn, ice, debris-rich ice and rock. The upper part of the drill is almost the same for all drill variants and comprises four sections: cable termination, a slip-ring section, an antitorque system and an electronic pressure chamber. The lower part of the IBED comprises an auger core barrel, reamers, a core barrel for ice/debris-ice drilling and a conventional geological single-tube core barrel or custom-made double-tube core barrel. First, the short and full-scale field versions of the IBED were tested at an outdoor testing stand and a testing facility with a 12.5 m-deep ice well. Then, in the 2018–2019 summer season, the IBED was tested in the field at a site ~12 km south of Zhongshan Station, East Antarctica, and a ~6 cm bedrock core was recovered from a 198 m-deep borehole. A total of 18 d was required to penetrate the ice sheet. The retrieved core samples of blue ice, basal ice and bedrock provided valuable information regarding the Earth's paleo-environment.
In many cases, the efficiency and safety of a drilling project depend on the reliability of the electrical and electronic control system, as the process progresses without visual access of the operator. The electrical and electronic system provides and regulates the power supply for the drill, collects and monitors the drill data during the whole operating process, and sends and receives the control instructions and feedback signals. The entire system is composed of the surface, borehole and software subsystems. The surface subsystem serves for operating the drilling process, transmitting the drilling and environmental data, and supplying power for the drill motor and downhole control system. The borehole subsystem is generally intended for borehole data acquisition, drill motor control, power regulation and communication. The software subsystem is designed for human–computer interaction, data processing and storage, and programming of signal acquisition and transmission of data. The control system of Antarctic subglacial drilling rig was tested during the 2018–2019 summer season near Zhongshan Station, East Antarctica, in the course of drilling to the bedrock at a depth of 198 m. It exhibited a steady and efficient performance without significant system failures.
The first case of 2019-nCoV pneumonia infection occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, South China Seafood Market in December 2019. As a group with a high probability of infection, health workers are faced with a certain degree of psychological challenges in the process of facing the epidemic. This study attempts to evaluate the impact of 2019-nCoV outbreak on the psychological state of Chinese health workers and to explore the influencing factors. During the period from 31 January 2020 to 4 February 2020, the ‘Questionnaire Star’ electronic questionnaire system was used to collect data. The 2019-nCoV impact questionnaire and The Impact of Event Scale (IES) were used to check the psychological status of health workers in China. A total of 442 valid data were collected in this study. Seventy-four (16.7%) male and 368 (83.3%) female individuals participated in this study. The average score of high arousal dimension was 5.15 (s.d. = 4.71), and the median score was 4.0 (IQR 2.0, 7.0). The average score of IES was 15.26 (s.d. = 11.23), and the median score was 13.5 (IQR 7.0, 21.0). Multiple regression analysis showed that there were critical statistical differences in high arousal scores among different gender groups (male 3.0 vs. female 5.0, P = 0.075). Whether being quarantined had significant statistical differences of IES scores (being quarantined 16.0 vs. not being quarantined 13.0, P = 0.021). The overall impact of the 2019-nCoV outbreak on health workers is at a mild level. Chinese health workers have good psychological coping ability in the face of public health emergencies.
To assess the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as a predictor of relapse of depressive symptoms in treatment-resistant depression (TRD).
Analysis included maintenance phase data from SUSTAIN-1 (NCT02493868), a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled study in TRD patients that evaluated efficacy of intranasal esketamine (ESK) + oral antidepressant (AD) vs AD + intranasal placebo in delaying relapse of depressive symptoms. A ≥50% reduction in initial symptom score and total score of ≤12 were considered as response and remission, respectively, using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. PHQ-9 total score (range, 0–27), PHQ-2 total score (0–6), and individual items of the PHQ-9 (0–3) were examined as predictors of relapse. Data were collected every 2 weeks. Association between time-varying PHQ-9 and event of depression relapse was evaluated in Andersen-Gill Cox model.
Of 176 stable remitters, 63 had a relapse event (ESK+AD [n=24]; AD+placebo [n=39]). Of 121 stable responders, 50 had a relapse event (ESK+AD [n=16]; AD+placebo [n=34]). Among stable remitters, PHQ-9 total score (HR; 95% CI [1.12; 1.04–1.21]) and PHQ-2 total score (1.58; 1.25–1.99) were associated with relapse risk. PHQ-9 items #1 (loss of pleasure, 2.07; 1.38–3.09), #2 (feeling down, 2.18; 1.51–3.15), #4 (feeling tired, 1.54; 1.13–2.11), and #6 (negative self-view, 2.27; 1.41–3.66) were associated with relapse risk. PHQ-2 total scale yielded the smallest Akaike’s Information Criterion among stable remitters and responders.
PHQ-9, PHQ-2 total scores or individual items may be useful for predicting relapse of depressive symptoms among stable TRD patients.
This study was sponsored by Janssen Research and Development, LLC.
Women experience both physical and psychological changes during different phases of the menstrual cycle (MC), which can affect their decision making. The present study aims to investigate the impact of the MC on women’s preferences for conspicuous consumption. In three studies, women in the low-fertility phase were found to be more inclined toward conspicuous consumption, with the MC effect on conspicuous consumption being mediated by the extent of pride. We assumed that women in the low-fertility phase would feel less proud due to an evolutionary drive and that they would consume conspicuous products as a means of compensation. Meanwhile, women who were only children did not manifest such behavior. We infer that women from one-child families may have a greater sense of security and confidence, which buffers the mediating effect. This research contributes to both evolutionary psychology and marketing research and provides new insights for future studies.
This study examined the activation of first language (L1) translations in second language (L2) word recognition in a lexical decision task. Test materials included English words that differed in the frequency of their Chinese translations or in their surface lexical frequency while other lexical properties were controlled. Chinese speakers of English as a second language of different proficiencies and native speakers of English were tested. Native speakers produced a reliable lexical frequency effect but no translation frequency effect. English as a second language speakers of lower English proficiency showed both a translation frequency effect and a lexical frequency effect, but those of higher English proficiency showed a lexical frequency effect only. The results were discussed in a verification model of L2 word recognition. According to the model, L2 word recognition entails a checking procedure in which activated L2 words are checked against their L1 translations. The two frequency effects are seen to have two different loci. The lexical frequency effect is associated with the initial activation of L2 lemmas, and the translation frequency effect arises in the verification process. Existing evidence for verification in L2 word recognition and new issues this model raises are discussed.
Metal oxides are promising candidates as the anodes of next-generation lithium ion batteries. However, the low electronic conductivities hinder their practical applications. Herein, through a facile calcination process using ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) as the N source, the nitrogen heteroelement was introduced into the ZnO/CoO micro-/nanospheres, which greatly improves the conductivity of the composites. As the lithium-ion battery anode, the N-doped ZnO/CoO micro-/nanosphere demonstrates much enhanced electrochemical performance. It displays a high initial capacity of 911.8 mA h/g at a current density of 0.2 A/g and long-term cycling stability, with a reversible capacity of 977.8 mA h/g remained after 500 cycles at a current density of 1 A/g. Furthermore, the N-doped ZnO/CoO composite presents an outstanding rate performance, with 605 mA h/g remained even at 5 A/g. The excellent electrochemical properties make N-doped ZnO/CoO micro-/nanospheres a promising candidate as high-performance anodes for next-generation rechargeable LIBs.
To explore whether and how group cognitive-behavioural therapy (GCBT) plus medication differs from medication alone for the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD).
Hundred and seventy patients were randomly assigned to the GCBT plus duloxetine (n=89) or duloxetine group (n=81). The primary outcomes were Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) response and remission rates. The explorative secondary measures included score reductions from baseline in the HAMA total, psychic, and somatic anxiety subscales (HAMA-PA, HAMA-SA), the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Severity Subscale of Clinical Global Impression Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 4-week, 8-week, and 3-month follow-up.
At 4 weeks, HAMA response (GCBT group 57.0% vs. control group 24.4%, p=0.000, Cohen’s d=0.90) and remission rates (GCBT group 21.5% vs. control group 6.2%, p=0.004; d=0.51), and most secondary outcomes (all p<0.05, d=0.36−0.77) showed that the combined therapy was superior. At 8 weeks, all the primary and secondary significant differences found at 4 weeks were maintained with smaller effect sizes (p<0.05, d=0.32−0.48). At 3-month follow-up, the combined therapy was only significantly superior in the HAMA total (p<0.045, d=0.43) and HAMA-PA score reductions (p<0.001, d=0.77). Logistic regression showed superiority of the combined therapy for HAMA response rates [odds ratio (OR)=2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02−4.42, p=0.04] and remission rates (OR=2.80, 95% CI 1.27−6.16, p=0.01).
Compared with duloxetine alone, GCBT plus duloxetine showed significant treatment response for GAD over a shorter period of time, particularly for psychic anxiety symptoms, which may suggest that GCBT was effective in changing cognitive style.
The notion of an m-algebraic lattice, where m stands for a cardinal number, includes numerous special cases, such as complete lattice, algebraic lattice, and prime algebraic lattice. In formal concept analysis, one fundamental result states that every concept lattice is complete, and conversely, each complete lattice is isomorphic to a concept lattice. In this paper, we introduce the notion of an m-approximable concept on each context. The m-approximable concept lattice derived from the notion is an m-algebraic lattice, and conversely, every m-algebraic lattice is isomorphic to an m-approximable concept lattice of some context. Morphisms on m-algebraic lattices and those on contexts are provided, called m-continuous functions and m-approximable morphisms, respectively. We establish a categorical equivalence between LATm, the category of m-algebraic lattices and m-continuous functions, and CXTm, the category of contexts and mapproximable morphisms.We prove that LATm is cartesian closed whenevermis regular and m > 2. By the equivalence of LATm and CXTm, we obtain that CXTm is also cartesian closed under same circumstances. The notions of a concept, an approximable concept, and a weak approximable concept are showed to be special cases of that of an m-approximable concept.
To compare and validate neurocognitive tests in the Harmonized Cognitive Assessment Protocol (HCAP) for the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), and to identify appropriate tests to be administered in future waves of CHARLS.
We recruited 825 individuals from the CHARLS sample and 766 subjects from hospitals in six provinces and cities in China. All participants were administered the HCAP-neurocognitive tests, and their informants were interviewed regarding the respondents’ functional status. Trained clinicians administered the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR) to assess the respondents’ cognitive status independently.
The testing protocol took an average of 58 minutes to complete. Refusal rates for tests of general cognition, episodic memory, and language were less than 10%. All neurocognitive test scores significantly correlated with the CDR global score (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.139 to 0.641). The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) - telephone interview for cognitive status (TICS), community screening instrument for dementia (CSI-D) for respondent, episodic memory and language tests each accounted for more than 20% of the variance in global CDR score (p < 0.001) in bivariate tests. In the CHARLS subsample, age and education were associated with neuropsychological performance across most cognitive domains, and with functional status.
A brief set of the CHARLS-HCAP neurocognitive tests are feasible and valid to be used in the CHARLS sample and hospital samples. It could be applied in the future waves of the CHARLS study, and it allows estimating the prevalence of dementia in China through the population-based CHARLS.
This research paper addresses the hypothesis that Septin6 is a key regulatory factor influencing amino acid (AA)-mediated cell growth and casein synthesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs). DCMECs were treated with absence of AA (AA−), restricted concentrations of AA (AAr) or normal concentrations of AA (AA+) for 24 h. Cell growth, expression of CSN2 and Septin6 were increased in response to AA supply. Overexpressing or inhibiting Septin6 demonstrated that cell growth, expression of CSN2, mTOR, p-mTOR, S6K1 and p-S6K1 were up-regulated by Septin6. Furthermore, overexpressing or inhibiting mTOR demonstrated that the increase in cell growth and expression of CSN2 in response to Septin6 overexpression were inhibited by mTOR inhibition, and vice versa. Our hypothesis was supported; we were able to show that Septin6 is an important positive factor for cell growth and casein synthesis, it up-regulates AA-mediated cell growth and casein synthesis through activating mTORC1 pathway in DCMECs.
Microscale testing has enjoyed significant developments, with the majority of testing focused on tensile/compression type tests and little focus on shear testing. With the recent advances in macroscale shear testing, we developed a novel shear structure for evaluating shear properties of bulk materials and films at the microscale. The shear response in single-crystal copper oriented along the  direction was found to have a yield strength of ∼180 MPa. Nanocrystalline copper specimens with different orientations showed sensitivity to the film texture with a shear yield strength nearly three times that of single-crystal copper. Shear specimens were fabricated with Cu film–Si substrate interface near the middle of the shear region and compressed to fracture. The shear response showed a mixed behavior of the stiff Si substrate and softer nanocrystalline film and failed in a brittle manner, indicating a response unique to the interface.
Nanostructured multiphase metallic materials present extraordinary properties, such as high strength, enhanced fatigue and radiation resistance, and thermal stability, compared to conventional bulk metallic materials. Previous research studies have shown that their deformation and fracture behavior are dominated by defect interactions at internal interfaces. In situ straining, including nanoindentation, compression, and tension, in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate the physics of defect–interface interactions at the nano-scale and even atomic scale. The mechanistic insights gained from these experiments coupled with dislocation theory and atomistic modeling has helped develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanical properties. In this article, through some recent investigations on observing dislocation and interface activities, crack propagation, and nanopillar compression, we present current progress in utilizing in situ TEM straining to examine interface-dominated deformation mechanisms.
Interfaces can influence the mechanical properties of metallic multilayers, even between different combinations of face-centered cubic (FCC)/body-centered cubic (BCC) constituents, as reported from many experiments. Recent literature has shown promise for fracture being delayed or even stopped at these interfaces. However, no studies have investigated the influence of their constituents on the subsequent mechanisms of fracture leading to failure. We performed in situ microfracture bending tests of the notched clamped beams made from physical vapor deposited Cu/Nb and Al/Nb multilayers. A catastrophic, linear elastic, brittle fracture was observed for the Cu/Nb beams, whereas a more delayed fracture with a gradual crack propagation was observed for the Al/Nb beams. These observations reveal differences in mechanisms because of the FCC element, interface/boundary blocking of dislocation motion, and effect of grain boundaries in the multilayers. Through this study, FCC/BCC metallic multilayers can be designed with enhanced fracture resistance and mechanical strength.