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The notion of an m-algebraic lattice, where m stands for a cardinal number, includes numerous special cases, such as complete lattice, algebraic lattice, and prime algebraic lattice. In formal concept analysis, one fundamental result states that every concept lattice is complete, and conversely, each complete lattice is isomorphic to a concept lattice. In this paper, we introduce the notion of an m-approximable concept on each context. The m-approximable concept lattice derived from the notion is an m-algebraic lattice, and conversely, every m-algebraic lattice is isomorphic to an m-approximable concept lattice of some context. Morphisms on m-algebraic lattices and those on contexts are provided, called m-continuous functions and m-approximable morphisms, respectively. We establish a categorical equivalence between LATm, the category of m-algebraic lattices and m-continuous functions, and CXTm, the category of contexts and mapproximable morphisms.We prove that LATm is cartesian closed whenevermis regular and m > 2. By the equivalence of LATm and CXTm, we obtain that CXTm is also cartesian closed under same circumstances. The notions of a concept, an approximable concept, and a weak approximable concept are showed to be special cases of that of an m-approximable concept.
To explore whether and how group cognitive-behavioural therapy (GCBT) plus medication differs from medication alone for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
170 patients were randomly assigned to the GCBT plus duloxetine (n=89) or duloxetine group (n=81). The primary outcomes were Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) response and remission rates. The explorative secondary measures included score reductions from baseline in the HAMA total, psychic and somatic anxiety subscales (HAMA-PA, HAMA-SA), the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), the Severity Subscale of Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI-S), Global Assessment Function (GAF), and the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Assessments were conducted at baseline, 4-weeks, 8-weeks and 3-monthsfollow-up.
At 4-weeks, HAMA response (GCBT group 57.0% vs. control group 24.4%, p=0.000, Cohen d=0.90) and remission rates (GCBT group 21.5%vs. control group 6.2%, p=0.004; d=0.51), and most secondary outcomes (all p<0.05, d=0.36-0.77) showed that the combined therapy was superior. At 8-weeks, all the primary and secondary significant differences found at 4-weeks were maintained with smaller effect sizes (p<0.05, d=0.32-0.48) . At 3-months follow-up, the combined therapy was only significantly superior in the HAMA total (p<0.045, d=0.43) and HAMA-PA score reductions (p<0.001, d=0.77). Logistic regression showed superiority of the combined therapy for HAMA response rates (OR=2.12, 95% CI 1.02-4.42, p=0.04); and remission rates (OR=2.80, 95% CI 1.27-6.16, p=0.01).
Compared with duloxetine alone, GCBT plus duloxetine showed significant treatment response for GAD over a shorter period of time, particularly for psychic anxiety symptoms, which may suggest GCBT was effective in changing cognitive style.
To compare and validate neurocognitive tests in the Harmonized Cognitive Assessment Protocol (HCAP) for the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), and to identify appropriate tests to be administered in future waves of CHARLS.
We recruited 825 individuals from the CHARLS sample and 766 subjects from hospitals in six provinces and cities in China. All participants were administered the HCAP-neurocognitive tests, and their informants were interviewed regarding the respondents’ functional status. Trained clinicians administered the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR) to assess the respondents’ cognitive status independently.
The testing protocol took an average of 58 minutes to complete. Refusal rates for tests of general cognition, episodic memory, and language were less than 10%. All neurocognitive test scores significantly correlated with the CDR global score (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.139 to 0.641). The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) - telephone interview for cognitive status (TICS), community screening instrument for dementia (CSI-D) for respondent, episodic memory and language tests each accounted for more than 20% of the variance in global CDR score (p < 0.001) in bivariate tests. In the CHARLS subsample, age and education were associated with neuropsychological performance across most cognitive domains, and with functional status.
A brief set of the CHARLS-HCAP neurocognitive tests are feasible and valid to be used in the CHARLS sample and hospital samples. It could be applied in the future waves of the CHARLS study, and it allows estimating the prevalence of dementia in China through the population-based CHARLS.
This research paper addresses the hypothesis that Septin6 is a key regulatory factor influencing amino acid (AA)-mediated cell growth and casein synthesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs). DCMECs were treated with absence of AA (AA−), restricted concentrations of AA (AAr) or normal concentrations of AA (AA+) for 24 h. Cell growth, expression of CSN2 and Septin6 were increased in response to AA supply. Overexpressing or inhibiting Septin6 demonstrated that cell growth, expression of CSN2, mTOR, p-mTOR, S6K1 and p-S6K1 were up-regulated by Septin6. Furthermore, overexpressing or inhibiting mTOR demonstrated that the increase in cell growth and expression of CSN2 in response to Septin6 overexpression were inhibited by mTOR inhibition, and vice versa. Our hypothesis was supported; we were able to show that Septin6 is an important positive factor for cell growth and casein synthesis, it up-regulates AA-mediated cell growth and casein synthesis through activating mTORC1 pathway in DCMECs.
Microscale testing has enjoyed significant developments, with the majority of testing focused on tensile/compression type tests and little focus on shear testing. With the recent advances in macroscale shear testing, we developed a novel shear structure for evaluating shear properties of bulk materials and films at the microscale. The shear response in single-crystal copper oriented along the  direction was found to have a yield strength of ∼180 MPa. Nanocrystalline copper specimens with different orientations showed sensitivity to the film texture with a shear yield strength nearly three times that of single-crystal copper. Shear specimens were fabricated with Cu film–Si substrate interface near the middle of the shear region and compressed to fracture. The shear response showed a mixed behavior of the stiff Si substrate and softer nanocrystalline film and failed in a brittle manner, indicating a response unique to the interface.
Nanostructured multiphase metallic materials present extraordinary properties, such as high strength, enhanced fatigue and radiation resistance, and thermal stability, compared to conventional bulk metallic materials. Previous research studies have shown that their deformation and fracture behavior are dominated by defect interactions at internal interfaces. In situ straining, including nanoindentation, compression, and tension, in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate the physics of defect–interface interactions at the nano-scale and even atomic scale. The mechanistic insights gained from these experiments coupled with dislocation theory and atomistic modeling has helped develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanical properties. In this article, through some recent investigations on observing dislocation and interface activities, crack propagation, and nanopillar compression, we present current progress in utilizing in situ TEM straining to examine interface-dominated deformation mechanisms.
Interfaces can influence the mechanical properties of metallic multilayers, even between different combinations of face-centered cubic (FCC)/body-centered cubic (BCC) constituents, as reported from many experiments. Recent literature has shown promise for fracture being delayed or even stopped at these interfaces. However, no studies have investigated the influence of their constituents on the subsequent mechanisms of fracture leading to failure. We performed in situ microfracture bending tests of the notched clamped beams made from physical vapor deposited Cu/Nb and Al/Nb multilayers. A catastrophic, linear elastic, brittle fracture was observed for the Cu/Nb beams, whereas a more delayed fracture with a gradual crack propagation was observed for the Al/Nb beams. These observations reveal differences in mechanisms because of the FCC element, interface/boundary blocking of dislocation motion, and effect of grain boundaries in the multilayers. Through this study, FCC/BCC metallic multilayers can be designed with enhanced fracture resistance and mechanical strength.
Does option-based compensation affect payout policy? To address this question, we examine the adoption of mandatory expensing of stock options. Our identification strategy exploits the fact that the reduction in option-based compensation after the accounting change varies with the firm-specific expected accounting impact. Across a battery of tests, we do not find that (accounting-driven) reductions in option-based pay cause dividends to increase or repurchases to decrease. Our results contrast with the widely held belief that option-based pay has a significant causal influence on payout policy and cast doubts on its role in the shift from dividends to repurchases.
Suicide attempt (SA), which is one of the strongest predictors of completed suicide, is common in major depressive disorder (MDD) but its prevalence across epidemiological studies has been mixed. The aim of this comprehensive meta-analysis was to examine the pooled prevalence of SA in individuals with MDD.
A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Cochrane Library from their commencement date until 27 December 2017. Original studies containing data on prevalence of SA in individuals with MDD were analyzed.
In all, 65 studies with a total of 27 340 individuals with MDD were included. Using the random effects model, the pooled lifetime prevalence of SA was 31% [95% confidence interval (CI) 27–34%], 1-year prevalence was 8% (95% CI 3–14%) and 1-month prevalence was 24% (95% CI 15–34%). Subgroup analyses revealed that the lifetime prevalence of SA was significantly associated with the patient setting, study region and income level, while the 1-month prevalence of SA was associated with only the patient setting.
This meta-analysis confirmed that SA was common in individuals with MDD across the world. Careful screening and appropriate interventions should be implemented for SA in the MDD population.
In this work, the deformation mechanisms underlying the room temperature deformation of the pseudomorphic body centered cubic (BCC) Mg phase in Mg/Nb nanolayered composites are studied. Nanolayered composites comprised of 50% volume fraction of Mg and Nb were synthesized using physical vapor deposition with the individual layer thicknesses h of 5, 6.7, and 50 nm. At the lower layer thicknesses of h = 5 and 6.7 nm, Mg has undergone a phase transition from HCP to BCC such that it formed a coherent interface with the adjoining Nb phase. Micropillar compression testing normal and parallel to the interface plane shows that the BCC Mg nanolayered composite is much stronger and can sustain higher strains to failure than the HCP Mg nanolayered composite. A crystal plasticity model incorporating confined layer slip is presented and applied to link the observed anisotropy and hardening in the deformation response to the underlying slip mechanisms.
This study analyzed and assessed publication trends in articles on “disaster medicine,” using scientometric analysis. Data were obtained from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) of Thomson Reuters on March 27, 2017. A total of 564 publications on disaster medicine were identified. There was a mild increase in the number of articles on disaster medicine from 2008 (n=55) to 2016 (n=83). Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness published the most articles, the majority of articles were published in the United States, and the leading institute was Tohoku University. F. Della Corte, M. D. Christian, and P. L. Ingrassia were the top authors on the topic, and the field of public health generated the most publications. Terms analysis indicated that emergency medicine, public health, disaster preparedness, natural disasters, medicine, and management were the research hotspots, whereas Hurricane Katrina, mechanical ventilation, occupational medicine, intensive care, and European journals represented the frontiers of disaster medicine research. Overall, our analysis revealed that disaster medicine studies are closely related to other medical fields and provides researchers and policy-makers in this area with new insight into the hotspots and dynamic directions. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:165–172)
The purposes of this study were to investigate the systemic and characteristic metabolites in the serum of dairy goats induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and to further understand the endogenous metabolic alterations induced by it. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomic approach was used to analyse the metabolic alterations in dairy goats that were induced by low doses of AFB1 (50 µg/kg DM). We found that AFB1 exposure caused significant elevations of glucose, citrate, acetate, acetoacetate, betaine, and glycine yet caused reductions of lactate, ketone bodies (acetate, β-hydroxybutyrate), amino acids (citrulline, leucine/isoleucine, valine, creatine) and cell membrane structures (choline, lipoprotein, N-acetyl glycoproteins) in the serum. These data indicated that AFB1 caused endogenous metabolic changes in various metabolic pathways, including cell membrane-associated metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycolysis, lipids, and amino acid metabolism. These findings provide both a comprehensive insight into the metabolic aspects of AFB1-induced adverse effects on dairy goats and a method for monitoring dairy animals exposed to low doses of AFB1.
The Chinese First Deep Ice-Core Drilling Project DK-1 has commenced at Kunlun station in the Dome A region, the highest plateau in Antarctica. During the first season, within the 28th Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) 2011/12 the pilot hole was drilled and reamed in order to install a 100 m deep fiberglass casing. In the next season, 29th CHINARE 2012/13, the deep ice-core drilling system was installed, and all the auxiliary equipment was connected and commissioned. After filling the hole with drilling fluid (n-butyl acetate), three runs of ‘wet’ ice-core drilling were carried out and a depth of 131.24 m was reached. Drilling to the bedrock at the target depth of ∼3100 m is planned to be completed during a further four seasons. We describe the work in progress and the status of equipment for the Dome A drilling project.
The therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been investigated in various clinical applications, in which their functional benefits are mainly attributed to the secretion of soluble factors. The enhancement of their therapeutic potential by physical and chemical properties of cell culture substrate is a safe and effective strategy, since they are highly sensitive to their microenvironment such as the elasticity and surface topography. In this study, we demonstrated that the geometry of polymeric substrate regulated the interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion of human adipose derived MSCs. Polystyrene substrates comprising arrays of square-shaped (S50) or round-shaped (R50) microwells (side length or diameter of 50 μm and depth of 10 μm) were prepared by injection molding. Cellular apoptototic rate of MSCs was not affected by the microwell geometry, while the upregulated secretion of IL-6 and the enhancement of nuclear transcription factor STAT3 were detected in MSCs seeded on S50 substrate. The geometry-dependent modulatory effect was highly associated with ROCK signaling cascade. The inhibition of ROCK abolished the disparity in IL-6 secretion. These findings highlight the possibility to steer the secretion profile of stem cells via microwell geometry in combination with the manipulation of ROCK signaling pathway.
The metadynamic recrystallization (MDRX) behavior of a Nb–V microalloyed nonquenched and tempered steel was investigated by isothermal hot compression tests on Gleeble-1500 thermal-mechanical simulator. Compression tests were performed using double hit schedules at temperatures of 1273–1423 K, strain rates of 0.01–5 s−1, initial grain sizes of 92–149 μm and an inter-pass time of 0.5–10 s. The experimental results show that MDRX softening fraction increases with the increasing of deformation temperature, strain rate, and inter-pass time, while it decreases with the increasing of initial grain size. Based on the experimental results, the MDRX softening fraction kinetic model and recrystallized grain size model of the tested steel was established. Besides, using the above mathematic models, a finite element model was built to simulate the MDRX process of the tested steel. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental ones, which indicates that finite element method is an effective approach to analyze the MDRX behavior and the established that mathematic models of the tested steel are reliable and accurate.
Early life is considered a critical period for determining long-term metabolic health. Postnatal over-nutrition may alter glucocorticoid (GC) metabolism and increase the risk of developing obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood. Our aim was to assess the effects of the dose and timing of a fish oil diet on obesity and the expression of GC-activated enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD1) in postnatal overfed rats. Litter sizes were adjusted to three (small litter (SL)) or ten (normal litter) rats on postnatal day 3 to induce overfeeding or normal feeding. The SL rats were divided into three groups after weaning: high-dose fish oil (HFO), low-dose fish oil (LFO) and standard-diet groups. After 10 weeks, the HFO diet reduced body weight gain (16 %, P<0·05), improved glucose intolerance and decreased hyperlipaemia levels (P<0·05) in SL rats, but the LFO diet did not have any effect on the same rats. Moreover, we chose postnatal week 3 (W3), 6 (W6) and 8 (W8) as the intervention time points at which to begin the 10-week HFO diet, and found that the HFO diet improved glucose utilisation and lipid metabolism at all time points. However, body weight of SL rats was reversed to normal levels by the post-weaning intervention (461 (sem 9·1) v. 450 (sem 2·0)). 11β-HSD1 mRNA expression in the adipose tissue (49 (sem 7·5) v. 161 (sem 18·3), P<0·05) and hepatic tissue (11 (sem 0·9) v. 16 (sem 1·5), P<0·05) was decreased by the HFO diet at W3, but not at W6 or W8 (P>0·05). In conclusion, the post-weaning HFO diet could reverse adverse outcomes and decrease tissue GC activity in postnatal overfed rats.
The five hundred meter aperture spherical radio telescope is will use an active spherical reflector. When the zenith scan angle is changed, the illuminated part of the reflecting surface is made to fit a paraboloid of revolution in real time by active control. The maximum zenith scan angle | ψmax | of FAST is 30° under conditions of the geometry selected in order that the feed does not illuminate the ground. The result of this paper shows that the maximum zenith scan angle | ψmax | can be extended to 69° by offsetting the feed.
This article focuses on in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterization to explore twins in face-centered-cubic and body-centered-cubic monolithic metals, and their impact on the overall mechanical performance. Taking advantage of simultaneous nanomechanical deformation and nanoscale imaging using versatile in situ TEM tools, direct correlation of these unique microscopic defects with macroscopic mechanical performance becomes possible. This article summarizes recent evidence to support the mechanisms related to strengthening and plasticity in metals, including nanotwinned Cu, Ni, Al, Au, and others in bulk, thin film, and nanowire forms.