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The effect of wet chemical treatment on the magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) was examined. The tunneling magneto-resistance (TMR) increased and the resistance of anti-parallel state and parallel state decreased when a wet cleaning treatment was carried out after a reactive ion etching process. Furthermore, the exfoliation between the capping layer and Inter layer Dielectric (ILD) was prevented. Presumably, these were due to the elimination of the damaged layer and the residues. This investigation showed that the wet treatment after the MTJ patterning using RIE process could improve the MTJ properties without degradation of Hc, such as TMR and Rlow.
We investigate the relativistic electron motions in a two-frequency wiggler magnetic field with self-generated fields. The equations of motion are derived from the Hamiltonian which include the self-generated field, and we find the steady-state orbit from the equations of motion. The stability of electron motion in a two-frequency wiggler is examined by the numerical simulation. We analyze the a dynamical systems using the fast Fourier transformation and the Poincarè surface of section to find the critical value which have the periodical electron motion and to optimize the two-frequency wiggler.
To determine the appropriateness of antibiotic prophylaxis regimens for major surgery in Korea.
Retrospective study using a written survey for each patient who underwent arthroplasty, colon surgery, or hysterectomy.
Six tertiary hospitals in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province.
From each hospital, a maximum of 150 patients who underwent each type of surgery were randomly chosen for the study.
Of 2,644 eligible patients, 1,914 patients were included in the analysis; 677 of these patients underwent arthroplasty, 578 underwent colon surgery, and 659 underwent hysterectomy. Nineteen patients were excluded from the analyses of the class and number of antibiotics used for prophylaxis because they underwent multiple surgeries at different sites. For each of the 1,895 remaining patients, antibiotic prophylaxis involved a mean ( ± SD) of 2.8 ± 0.9 classes of antibiotics. The most commonly prescribed agents were cephalosporins (prescribed for 1,875 [98.9%] of the patients) and aminoglycosides (1,404 [74.1%]). A total of 1,574 (83.1%) of patients received at least 2 classes of antibiotics simultaneously. Only 15 (0.8%) of 1,895 patients received antibiotic prophylaxis in accordance with published guidelines. Of 506 patients for whom the initial dose of antibiotics was evaluated, 374 (73.9%) received an appropriate initial dose. Of the 1,676 patients whose medical records included information about antibiotic administration relative to the time of surgery, only 188 (11.2%) received antibiotic prophylaxis an hour or less before the surgical incision was made. Of the 1,748 patients whose medical records included information about duration of surgery, antibiotic prophylaxis was discontinued 24 hours or less after surgery for only 3 (0.2%) of the patients.
Most patients who had major surgery in Korea received inappropriate antibiotic prophylaxis. Measures to improve the appropriateness of antibiotic prophylaxis are urgently required.
The microstructure and electrical properties were investigated for SrTiO3(STO) thin films deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by PEMOCVD. The SrF2 phase existing in the STO films deposited at 450 °C influences the dielectric constant, dissipation factor, and leakage current density of STO films. The dielectric constant and dissipation factor of STO films deposited at 500 °C were 210 and 0.018 at 100 kHz, respectively. STO films were found to have paraelectric properties from the capacitance-voltage characteristics. Leakage current density of STO films at 500 °C was about 1.0 × 10-8 A/cm2 at an electric field of 70 kV/cm. The leakage current behaviors of STO films deposited at 500 and 550 °C were controlled by Schottky emission with applied electric field.
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