SCFA resulting from the microbial fermentation of carbohydrates have been linked to increased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion from the gastrointestinal tract in cell and animal models; however, there is little direct evidence in human subjects to confirm this. The present study was designed to investigate whether endogenous plasma GLP-1 concentrations increase following acute consumption of 48 g dietary fibre (as resistant starch (RS) from high-amylose maize type 2 RS (HAM-RS2)) compared with a matched placebo. A total of thirty healthy males participated in the present randomised cross-over study where HAM-RS2 or placebo was consumed as part of standardised breakfast and lunch meals. Changes to GLP-1, glucose, insulin and C-peptide were assessed half hourly for 7 h. Following the breakfast meal, plasma GLP-1 concentrations were lower with HAM-RS2 compared with the placebo (P =0·025). However, there was no significant difference between the supplements following the lunch meal. Plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower following the lunch meal (P =0·034) with HAM-RS2 than with the placebo, but were not different after breakfast. Plasma glucose and C-peptide concentrations did not differ at any point. These results suggest that increased dietary fibre intake, in the form of HAM-RS2, does not acutely increase endogenous GLP-1 concentrations in human subjects. Further fibre feeding studies are required to determine whether GLP-1 concentrations may increase following longer-term consumption.