Cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley is an important polyphagous insect pest and causes severe losses to different crops worldwide. In the current study, we investigated the effect of different host plants, such as Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Plumeria rubra, Anthurium andraeanum, Jasminum sambac, and Hibiscus rosasinensis, on the biological parameters of P. solenopsis. The survival rate from crawler to adult, female nymphal duration, development time from crawler to female adult, and female adult weight were significantly different on the different hosts. Male nymphal duration, development time from crawler to male adult, pupal weight, emergence rate of male adults, and mean relative growth rate for male were similar on all the tested host plants. Pupal duration and generation time of male and female on H. rosasinensis were significantly shorter than on the other hosts. Adult male and female P. solenopsis longevity was significantly shorter on H. rosasinensis compared to other hosts. The fecundity was lower on C. pulcherrima and A. andraeanum and hatchability was lower on C. pulcherrima than on the other hosts. The net reproductive rate, the intrinsic rate of natural increase, and biotic potential and mean relative growth rate for female of P. solenopsis were significantly different on the tested hosts. Our results point to the role of host plants in increasing the populations of P. solenopsis and could help to design cultural management strategies.