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Iron walnut, Juglans sigillata Dode, restricted to southwestern China, has its centre of distribution in Yunnan Province which has a varied climate, geography and rich plant diversity. Yunnan contains abundant J. sigillata germplasm. In this study, a provincial-scale set of walnut germplasm resources (14 populations comprising 1122 individuals) was evaluated for genetic diversity based on 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci. The number of SSR alleles per locus ranged from 7 to 27, with an average of 17.55. Mean allelic richness and mean private allelic richness ranged from 3.40 to 4.62 and 0.11 to 0.36, with average of 3.93 and 0.30, respectively. Expected heterozygosity (He) varied from 0.26 to 0.78, with an average of 0.57. Polymorphism information content ranged from 0.22 to 0.79, with an average of 0.57. Genetic differentiation (FST) was 0.05, indicating that only 5% of total genetic variability was inter-populational, a finding supported by an analysis of molecular variance and STRUCTURE analysis. Relatively high gene flow (Nm = 6.70) was observed between populations. A unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic analysis classified the 14 populations into two major groups. Mantel testing uncovered a significant correlation between geographic distance and genetic distance (r = 0.33, P = 0.04). Overall, the research revealed a moderately high level of genetic diversity in the germplasm and low genetic differentiation among populations, which showed great potential for further development and exploitation of this resource.
A high-carbohydrate diet could achieve a protein-sparing effect, but it may cause negative impacts on the growth condition of fish due to their poor utilisation ability of carbohydrate. How to reduce the adverse effects caused by a high-carbohydrate diet is important for the development of aquaculture. In the present study, we aimed to identify whether inulin could attenuate the metabolic syndrome caused by a high-carbohydrate diet in fish. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (1·19 (sd 0·01) g) were supplied with 35 % carbohydrate (CON), 45 % carbohydrate (HC) and 45 % carbohydrate + 5 g/kg inulin (HCI) diets for 10 weeks. The results showed that addition of inulin improved the survival rate when fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila, indicating that inulin had an immunostimulatory effect. Compared with the HC group, the HCI group had lower lipid accumulation in liver and the gene expression analyses indicated that addition of inulin down-regulated genes related to lipogenesis and up-regulated genes relevant to β-oxidation significantly (P < 0·05). Higher liver glycogen and glucose tolerance were found in the HCI group compared with the HC group (P < 0·05). These results indicated that inulin could alleviate the metabolic syndrome induced by a high-carbohydrate diet. Furthermore, addition of inulin to a high-carbohydrate diet changed the intestinal bacterial composition and significantly increased the concentration of acetic acid and propionic acid in fish gut which have the potential to increase pathogen resistance and regulate metabolic characteristics in fish. Collectively, our results demonstrated a possible causal role for the gut microbiome in metabolic improvements induced by inulin in fish.
The time dispersion effect affects the accuracy of solar time difference of arrival (TDOA) navigation. In this celestial autonomous navigation, Mars's moons are reflecting celestial bodies, and their shape affects the TDOA dispersion model. In the modelling process of traditional methods, the moons of Mars (Phobos and Deimos) are regarded as points, which causes the model to be inaccurate. In order to solve these problems, we simplified the Mars's moons into ellipsoids or solid diamonds, and then established a TDOA model with the nonspherical Mars's moons as reflecting celestial bodies through differential geometry and geometric optics. Finally, we analysed the time dispersion caused by the Mars's moons in theory. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that the point model error is 5·66 km, and the 3D model error is within 70 m. Thus, the 3D TDOA model established in this paper is meaningful. In addition, the Sun–Mars-moons–spacecraft angle, solar flare, three-axis length, and attitude of the Mars's moons have a great effect on the dispersion profile, while the Mars's moons-to-spacecraft distance has a small effect.
Birth weight influences not only brain development, but also mental health outcomes, including depression, but the underlying mechanism is unclear.
The phenotypic data of 12,872–91,009 participants (59.18–63.38% women) from UK Biobank were included to test the associations between the birth weight, depression, and brain volumes through the linear and logistic regression models. As birth weight is highly heritable, the polygenic risk scores (PRSs) of birth weight were calculated from the UK Biobank cohort (154,539 participants, 56.90% women) to estimate the effect of birth weight-related genetic variation on the development of depression and brain volumes. Finally, the mediation analyses of step approach and mediation analysis were used to estimate the role of brain volumes in the association between birth weight and depression. All analyses were conducted sex stratified to assess sex-specific role in the associations.
We observed associations between birth weight and depression (odds ratio [OR] = 0.968, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.957–0.979, p = 2.29 × 10−6). Positive associations were observed between birth weight and brain volumes, such as gray matter (B = 0.131, p = 3.51 × 10−74) and white matter (B = 0.129, p = 1.67 × 10−74). Depression was also associated with brain volume, such as left thalamus (OR = 0.891, 95% CI = 0.850–0.933, p = 4.46 × 10−5) and right thalamus (OR = 0.884, 95% CI = 0.841–0.928, p = 2.67 × 10−5). Additionally, significant mediation effects of brain volume were found for the associations between birth weight and depression through steps approach and mediation analysis, such as gray matter (B = –0.220, p = 0.020) and right thalamus (B = –0.207, p = 0.014).
Our results showed the associations among birth weight, depression, and brain volumes, and the mediation effect of brain volumes also provide evidence for the sex-specific of associations.
This paper claims that palliative care (PC) is a suitable approach for offering comprehensive support to patients with life-threatening illness and unavoidable asthenia, to enhance their quality of life in aging and chronic illness. There are however some conceptual barriers to accessing that care on the Chinese Mainland: (1) Death-denying culture and society; (2) Misguidance and malpractice derived from the biomedical model; (3) Prejudice against PC and certain deviant understandings of filial piety culture. To counter these obstacles, the study introduces the philosophy of Chinese Taoist Chuang-tze to enlighten the public from ignorance and remove some illusions about death and dying; inspire people to face and accept illness and death calmly, and keep harmony and inner peace of mind to alleviate suffering, with the aim of providing wisdom and a shift of attitude toward life and death. Chuang-tze’s thoughts are consistent with the provision of palliative care, and to a certain degree, can promote its acceptability and delivery, and the conception of good death in practice.
In December, 2019, an infectious outbreak of unknown cause occurred in Wuhan, which attracted intense attention. Shortly after the virus was identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) broke out, and an information storm occurred. At that time, 2 important aspects, that is, the stages of spread and the components of the epidemic, were unclear. Answers to the questions (1) what are the sources, (2) how do infections occur, and (3) who will be affected should be clarified as the outbreak continues to evolve. Furthermore, components of the epidemic and the stages of spread should be explored and discussed. Based on information of SARS, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and COVID-19, the components of the epidemic (the sources, the routes of infection, and the susceptible population) will be discussed, as well as the role of natural and social factors involved. Epidemiologic characteristics of patients will be traced based on current information.
To assess the prevalence and to identify the associated factors of malnutrition among elderly Chinese with physical functional dependency.
Face-to-face interviews using standardised questionnaires were conducted to collect demographic information, health-related issues and psychosocial status. Physical function was measured by the Barthel Index (BI), and nutrition status was assessed by the Mini Nutritional Assessment–Short Form. Multivariate binary logistic regression was used to assess associated factors of malnutrition.
A total of 2323 participants (aged ≥ 60 years) with physical functional dependency in five provinces in China were enrolled using a multistage cluster sampling scheme.
The prevalence of malnutrition was 17·9 % (95 % CI 16·3, 19·4). Multivariable binary logistic regression revealed the independent risk factors of poor nutrition status were being female, older age, lower educational status, poor hearing, poor physical functional status, lack of hobbies, low religious participation, poor social support, lack of social participation and changes in social participation. The study found that the most significant independent risk factor for malnutrition was complete physical functional dependence (OR 4·46, 95 % CI 2·92, 6·82).
The findings of the study confirm that malnutrition and the risk of malnutrition are prevalent in Chinese older adults with physical functional dependency. In addition to demographic and physical health-related factors, psychosocial factors, which are often overlooked, are independently associated with nutrition status in Chinese older adults with physical functional dependency. A holistic approach should be adopted to screen for malnutrition and develop health promotion interventions in this vulnerable population.
In probing quantum materials, thermal transport is less appreciated than electrical transport. This article aims to show the pivotal role that thermal transport may play in understanding quantum materials—longitudinal thermal transport reflects itinerant quasiparticles, even in an electrical insulating phase, while transverse thermal transport such as the thermal Hall and Nernst effects is tightly linked to nontrivial topology. We discuss three examples—quantum spin liquids wherein thermal transport identifies its existence, superconductors wherein thermal transport reveals the superconducting gap structure, and topological Weyl semimetals where the anomalous Nernst effect is a consequence of nontrivial Berry curvature. We conclude with an outlook on the unique insights thermal transport may offer to probe a much broader category of quantum phenomena.
Low-dimensional superconductors have been at the forefront of physics research due to their rich physical properties such as high-temperature (Tc) superconductivity. In this article, we review the field of emergent high-Tc superconductivity at interfaces of heterostructures, focusing on the experimental advances and its physical mechanism. Charge transfer between constituent materials leads to two-dimensional carrier confinement that facilitates occurrence of superconductivity at the interface. We discuss the similarities between bulk high-Tc superconductors and interface systems, as well as implications from a survey of interface superconductors. We expect that the hybrid heterostructures and the ability to manipulate them on an atomic scale could be an enormously fertile ground to explore superconductivity with higher critical temperature Tc.
Primary liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Most patients are diagnosed at late stages with poor prognosis; thus, identification of modifiable risk factors for primary prevention of liver cancer is urgently needed. The well-established risk factors of liver cancer include chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV), heavy alcohol consumption, metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes, and aflatoxin exposure. However, a large proportion of cancer cases worldwide cannot be explained by current known risk factors. Dietary factors have been suspected as important, but dietary aetiology of liver cancer remains poorly understood. In this review, we summarised and evaluated the observational studies of diet including single nutrients, food and food groups, as well as dietary patterns with the risk of developing liver cancer. Although there are large knowledge gaps between diet and liver cancer risk, current epidemiological evidence supports an important role of diet in liver cancer development. For example, exposure to aflatoxin, heavy alcohol drinking and possibly dairy product (not including yogurt) intake increase, while intake of coffee, fish and tea, light-to-moderate alcohol drinking and several healthy dietary patterns (e.g. Alternative Healthy Eating Index) may decrease liver cancer risk. Future studies with large sample size and accurate diet measurement are warranted and need to consider issues such as the possible aetiological heterogeneity between liver cancer subtypes, the influence of chronic HBV or HCV infection, the high-risk populations (e.g. cirrhosis) and a potential interplay with host gut microbiota or genetic variations.
We propose a novel formal approach to robust motion planning (MP) in dynamic environments based on reachability analysis. While traditional MP methods usually fail to provide formal robust safety and performance guarantees, our approach provably ensures safe task achievement in time-varying and adversarial environments under parametric uncertainty. We leverage recent results on Hamilton–Jacobi (HJ) reachability and differential games in order to compute offline guaranteed motion plans that are compatible with the sampled-data (SD) paradigm. Also, we synthesize online provably robust safety-preserving and target-reaching feedback controls. Unlike earlier applications of reachability analysis to MP, our methodology handles arbitrary time-varying constraints, adversarial agents such as pursuing obstacles or evading targets, and takes into account the robot’s configuration. Furthermore, we use HJ projections in order to reduce significantly the computational burden without trading off safety guarantees. The validity of this approach is demonstrated through the case study of a robot arm subject to measurement errors, which is tasked with safely reaching a goal in a known time-varying workspace while avoiding capture by an unpredictable pursuer. Finally, the performance of the approach and research perspectives are discussed.
Schizophrenia is a serious health problem worldwide. This systematic analysis aims to quantify the burden of schizophrenia at the global, regional and national levels using the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 (GBD 2017).
We collected detailed information on the number of incidence cases, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and age-standardised incidence rate (ASIR) and age-standardised rate of DALYs (ASDR) during 1990–2017 from GBD 2017. The estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) in the ASIR and in the ASDR were calculated to quantify the temporal trends in the ASIR and ASDR of schizophrenia.
Globally there were 1.13 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] = 1.00 to 1.28) incident schizophrenia cases and 12.66 million (95% UI = 9.48 to 15.56) DALYs due to schizophrenia in 2017. The global ASIR decreased slightly from 1990 to 2017 (EAPC = −0.124, 95% UI = −0.114 to −0.135), while the ASDR was stable. The number of incident cases, DALYs, ASIR and ASDR were higher for males than for females. The incident rate and DALYs rate were highest among those aged 20–29 and 30–54 years, respectively. ASIR and ASDR were highest in East Asia in 2017, at 19.66 (95% UI = 17.72 to 22.00) and 205.23 (95% UI = 153.13 to 253.34), respectively. In 2017, the ASIR was highest in countries with a high-moderate sociodemographic index (SDI) and the ASDR was highest in high-SDI countries. We also found that the EAPC in ASDR was negatively correlated with the ASDR in 1990 (P = 0.001, ρ = −0.23).
The global burden of schizophrenia remains large and continues to increase, thereby increasing the burden on health-care systems. The reported findings should be useful for resource allocation and health services planning for the increasing numbers of patients with schizophrenia in ageing societies.
Protein content (PC) and oil content (OC) are important breeding traits of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for PC and OC is important for molecular breeding in soybean; however, the negative correlation between PC and OC influences the accuracy of QTL mapping. In the current study, a four-way recombinant inbred lines (FW-RILs) population comprising 160 lines derived from the cross (Kenfeng14 × Kenfeng15) × (Heinong48 × Kenfeng19) was planted in eight different environments and PC and OC measured. Conditional and unconditional QTL analyses were carried out by interval mapping (IM) and inclusive complete IM based on linkage maps of 275 simple sequences repeat markers in a FW-RILs population. This analysis revealed 59 unconditional QTLs and 52 conditional QTLs among the FW-RILs. An analysis of additive effects indicated that the effects of 13 protein QTLs were not related to OC, whereas OC affected the expression of 13 and eight QTLs either partially or completely, respectively. Eight QTLs affecting OC were not influenced by PC, whereas six and 26 QTLs were partially and fully affected by PC, respectively. Among the QTLs detected in the current study, two protein QTLs and five oil QTLs had not been previously reported. These findings will facilitate marker-assisted selection and molecular breeding of soybean.
It is urgent to develop new antimalarial drugs with good therapeutic effects to address the emergence of drug resistance. Here, the artelinic acid-choline derivative (AD) was synthesized by dehydration reaction and esterification reaction, aimed to avoid the emergence of drug resistance by synergistic effect of artemisinins and choline derivative, which could compete with choline for rate-limiting enzymes in the phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthetic pathway. AD was formulated into liposomes (ADLs) by the thin-film hydration method. Efficacy of ADLs was evaluated by Peters 4-day suppression test. The suppression percentage against Plasmodium yoelii BY265 (PyBY265) in ADLs group was higher than those of positive control groups (dihydroartemisinin liposomes, P < 0.05) and other control groups (P ⩽ 0.05) at the doses of 4.4, 8.8, 17.6 µmol (kg·d)−1, respectively. The negative conversion fraction, recrudescence fraction and survival fraction of ADLs group were superior to other control groups. Pharmacokinetics in rats after intravenous injection suggested that ADLs exhibited higher exposure levels (indexed by area under concentration-time curve) than that of AD solution, artelinic acid liposomes or artelinic acid solution (P < 0.01). Taken together, ADLs exhibited promising antimalarial efficacy and pharmacokinetic characteristics.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
The fenofibrate functions in mammals could be affected by many factors such as dietary nutrient levels and physiological status. However, this phenomenon has not been well studied in fish. The goal of our study was to investigate the effect of dietary protein contents on metabolic regulation of fenofibrate in Nile tilapia. An 8-week experiment was conducted to feed fish with four diets at two protein levels (28 and 38 %) with or without the supplementation of fenofibrate (200 mg/kg body weight per d). After the trial, the body morphometric parameters, plasma biochemical parameters and quantitative PCR data were examined. These results showed that fenofibrate significantly reduced the feeding intake and weight gain rate, increased the oxidative stress (increased plasma methane dicarboxylic aldehyde) and liver : body ratio (increased hepatosomatic index) in the low protein (LP)-fed fish. In contrast, fenofibrate exhibited a lipid-lowering (reduced hepatic lipid) effect and up-regulated the expressions of the genes related to lipid catabolism, transport and anabolic metabolism in the high protein (HP)-fed fish. The present study suggested that lipid-lowering effect of fenofibrate would be strengthened in the fish fed with the HP diet containing high energy, but in the fish fed with the LP diet containing low energy, the fenofibrate treatment would cause adverse effects for metabolism. Taking together, our study showed that the metabolic regulation of fenofibrate in Nile tilapia was dependent not only on feed energy content but also on dietary nutrient composition, such as dietary protein and/or lipid levels.
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability and polygenic inheritance. Multimodal neuroimaging studies have also indicated that abnormalities of brain structure and function are a plausible neurobiological characterisation of schizophrenia. However, the polygenic effects of schizophrenia on these imaging endophenotypes have not yet been fully elucidated.
To investigate the effects of polygenic risk for schizophrenia on the brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity, which are disrupted in schizophrenia.
Genomic and neuroimaging data from a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia (N = 509) and healthy controls (N = 502) were included in this study. We examined grey matter volume and functional connectivity via structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Using the data from a recent meta-analysis of a genome-wide association study that comprised a large number of Chinese people, we calculated a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each participant.
The imaging genetic analysis revealed that the individual PGRS showed a significantly negative correlation with the hippocampal grey matter volume and hippocampus–medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity, both of which were lower in the people with schizophrenia than in the controls. We also found that the observed neuroimaging measures showed weak but similar changes in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.
These findings suggested that genetically influenced brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity may provide important clues for understanding the pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia and for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia.
The High-degree Cubature Kalman Filter (HCKF) is proposed as a novel methodology based on the arbitrary degree spherical rule, which can achieve better performance than the traditional Kalman filter. However, it also has a large calculation burden when used in a high-dimension and high-degree of accuracy estimation system. The number of sampling points of an HCKF increases polynomially with increasing state-space dimensions, which further increases the calculation burden. The reduction of the number of the state-space dimensions is the main contribution of this study. A strategy for HCKF based on the partitioning of the state-space and orthogonal principle is introduced, referred to as the Multiple Robust HCKF (MRHCKF). It is shown that this technique can effectively reduce the calculation burden for the high-dimension system with robust performance. Numerical simulations are performed for the example of high-dimension relative position and attitude estimation to show that the proposed method can obtain nearly the same performance as the HCKF, while drastically reducing computational complexity.