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To establish optimal gestational weight gain (GWG) in Chinese pregnant women by Chinese-specific body mass index (BMI) categories and compare the new recommendations with the Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2009 guidelines.
Multicenter, prospective cohort study. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the predicted probabilities of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The optimal GWG range was defined as the range that did not exceed a 1% increase from the lowest predicted probability in each pre-pregnancy BMI group.
From nine cities in mainland China.
A total of 3731 women with singleton pregnancy were recruited from April 2013 to December 2014.
The optimal GWG (ranges) by Chinese-specific BMI was 15.0 (12.8-17.1), 14.2 (12.1-16.4) and 12.6 (10.4-14.9) kg for underweight, normal weight and overweight pregnant women, respectively. Inappropriate GWG was associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes. Compared with women gaining weight within our proposed recommendations, women with excessive GWG had higher risk for macrosomia, large for gestational age and cesarean section; whereas those with inadequate GWG had higher risk for low birth weight, small for gestational age and preterm delivery. The comparison between our proposed recommendations and IOM 2009 guidelines showed that our recommendations were comparable with the IOM 2009 guidelines and could well predict the risk of several adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Inappropriate GWG was associated with higher risk of several adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimal GWG recommendations proposed in the present study could be applied to Chinese pregnant women.
Dysfunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to examine the efficacy and safety of memantine, a non-competitive NMDAR antagonist, in the treatment of schizophrenia.
Standardized/weighted mean differences (SMDs/WMDs), risk ratio (RR), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and analyzed.
Included in the meta-analysis were eight RCTs (n = 452) of 11.5 ± 2.6 weeks duration, with 229 patients on memantine (20 mg/day) and 223 patients on placebo. Adjunctive memantine outperformed placebo in the measures of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale negative symptoms [SMD: −0.63 (95% CI −1.10 to −0.16), p = 0.009, I2 = 77%], but not in the total, positive and general symptoms [SMD: −0.46 to −0.08 (95% CI −0.93 to 0.22), p = 0.06–0.60, I2 = 0–74%] or the Clinical Global Impression Severity Scale [WMD: 0.04 (95% CI −0.24 to 0.32), p = 0.78]. The negative symptoms remained significant after excluding one outlying RCT [SMD: −0.41 (95% CI −0.72 to −0.11), p = 0.008, I2 = 47%]. Compared with the placebo group, adjunctive memantine was associated with significant improvement in neurocognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) [WMD: 3.09, (95% CI 1.77–4.42), p < 0.00001, I2 = 22%]. There was no significant difference in the discontinuation rate [RR: 1.34 (95% CI 0.76–2.37), p = 0.31, I2 = 0%] and adverse drug reactions between the two groups.
This meta-analysis showed that adjunctive memantine appears to be an efficacious and safe treatment for improving negative symptoms and neurocognitive performance in schizophrenia. Higher quality RCTs with larger samples are warranted to confirm these findings.
Transform-based algorithms have wide applications in applied probability, but rarely provide computable error bounds to guarantee the accuracy. We propose an inversion algorithm for two-sided Laplace transforms with computable error bounds. The algorithm involves a discretization parameter C and a truncation parameter N. By choosing C and N using the error bounds, the algorithm can achieve any desired accuracy. In many cases, the bounds decay exponentially, leading to fast computation. Therefore, the algorithm is especially suitable to provide benchmarks. Examples from financial engineering, including valuation of cumulative distribution functions of asset returns and pricing of European and exotic options, show that our algorithm is fast and easy to implement.
Previous studies support Beck's cognitive model of vulnerability to depression. However, the relationship between his cognitive triad and other clinical features and risk factors among those with major depression (MD) has rarely been systematically studied.
The three key cognitive symptoms of worthlessness, hopelessness and helplessness were assessed during their lifetime worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent MD. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression.
Compared to patients who did not endorse the cognitive trio, those who did had a greater number of DSM-IV A criteria, more individual depressive symptoms, an earlier age at onset, a greater number of episodes, and were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for melancholia, postnatal depression, dysthymia and anxiety disorders. Hopelessness was highly related to all the suicidal symptomatology, with ORs ranging from 5.92 to 6.51. Neuroticism, stressful life events (SLEs) and a protective parental rearing style were associated with these cognitive symptoms.
During the worst episode of MD in Han Chinese women, the endorsement of the cognitive trio was associated with a worse course of depression and an increased risk of suicide. Individuals with high levels of neuroticism, many SLEs and high parental protectiveness were at increased risk for these cognitive depressive symptoms. As in Western populations, symptoms of the cognitive trio appear to play a central role in the psychopathology of MD in Chinese women.
This paper proposes a Laplace-transform-based approach to price the fixed-strike quantile options as well as to calculate the associated hedging parameters (delta and gamma) under a hyperexponential jump diffusion model, which can be viewed as a generalization of the well-known Black-Scholes model and Kou's double exponential jump diffusion model. By establishing a relationship between floating- and fixed-strike quantile option prices, we can also apply this pricing and hedging method to floating-strike quantile options. Numerical experiments demonstrate that our pricing and hedging method is fast, stable, and accurate.
We report here the growth of ultra thin ZnSe nanowires at low temperatures by Au-catalyzed molecule beam epitaxy and structural characterization of the nanowires. ZnSe nanowires may contain a high density of stacking faults and twins from low temperature growth and show a phase change from cubic to hexagonal structures. Ultra thin ZnSe nanowires can grow at a temperature below the eutectic point, and the relationship between the growth rates and nanowire diameters is V = 1/dn + C0 (C0 is a constant and n is a fitting parameter). The growth rate of the ultra thin nanowires at low temperatures can be elucidated based on the model involving interface incorporation and diffusion, in which the catalyst is solidified, and the nanowire growth is controlled through the diffusion of atoms into the interface between catalyst and the nanowire. The growth rate of ZnSe ultra-thin nanowires has been simulated.
A broadband GaN-based semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) with a dielectric SiO2/Si3N4 distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) operating at wavelength around 415 nm was fabricated. Serious oscillation fringes due to the light interference were observed in the SESAM's reflectance spectrum. Such oscillation in reflectivity can impede the function of the saturable absorber. Simulations showed that by removing the sapphire substrate and thinning the GaN buffer layer, oscillation fringes could be significantly reduced. Experiments were carried out and the results agreed well with the simulation prediction.
Ferromagnetic nanoclusters are very useful for a magnetic recording. However, the application of ferromagnetic nanoclusters is limited due to air-oxidation. One way to solve air- oxidation is to encapsulate ferromagnetic nanoclusters with inert materials such as carbon when they are produced. This allows us to keep excellent magnetic properties for a long time. In this work, we report a very simple synthetic method of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) encapsulated ferromagnetic cobalt nanoclusters by catalytic decomposing benzene over Co/silica-gel nano- scale catalysts. Unlike previous reports, the catalysts do not need to be pre-reduced prior to the forming of CNTs encapsulated cobalt nanoclusters, thus, the advantage of this method is that CNTs encapsulated ferromagnetic nanoclusters can be produced in one step, at a relatively low cost. High-resolution Transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to characterize the microstructures and compositions of the products. Experimental results revealed that the encapsulated Co was always presented as high temperature alpha-Co phase with fee structure, which frequently consists of twinned boundaries and stacking faults. Based on the experimental results, a possible growth mechanism of the CNTs encapsulated Co nanoclusters was proposed. Magnetic property measurements showed that the CNTs encapsulated cobalt nanoclusters possessed excellent magnetic properties.
High-quality cobalt-filled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared in situ in the decomposition of benzene over Co/silica-gel nano-scale catalysts. Unlike the previous reports, the catalysts needn't be pre-reduced prior to the forming of Co-filled CNTs, thus the advantage of this method is that Co-filled CNTs can be produced in one step, at a relatively low cost. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation showed that the products contained abundance of CNTs and most of them were filled with metallic nanoparticles or nanorods. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed the presence of Co inside the nanotubes. The encapsulated Co was further identified always as high temperature alpha-Co phase with fcc structure, which frequently consists of twinned boundaries and stacking faults. Based on the experimental results, a possible growth mechanism of the Co-filled CNTs was proposed.
In this presentation, we described a study on preparation and microstructure of Au (Ru) nano-particles embedded in SiO2 matrices, which were prepared as advanced display materials by using Sol-gel method. Both microstructure and composition of these micro/nano-particles composites were characterized by HRTEM (high resolution transmission electron microscope), EMP (electron microprobe) and nano-probe EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Experimental results showed that the products have multi-levels in structure like nebulae. The aggregation of Au/Ru nano-particles can be extremely diminished by using SiO2 micro-particles as matrices. Distortions of the atomic lattices of Au and Ru nano-crystallites were often observed in the surface of these nano-particles. Moreover, nano-EDS measurements revealed that Au and Ru nano-particles are always separately embedded in SiO2 matrices, no alloy of them is observed.
In  we introduced and studied for product hypergraphs where ℋi = (i,ℰi), the minimal size π(ℋn) of a partition of into sets that are elements of . The main result was that
if the ℋis are graphs with all loops included. A key step in the proof concerns the special case of complete graphs. Here we show that (1) also holds when the ℋi are complete d-uniform hypergraphs with all loops included, subject to a condition on the sizes of the i. We also present an upper bound on packing numbers.
The partition number of a product hypergraph is introduced as the minimal size of a partition of its vertex set into sets that are edges. This number is shown to be multiplicative if all factors are graphs with all loops included.
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