To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To examine the relationship between epigenetic age acceleration (EAA) and depressive symptoms in a cohort of African American women (AAW) with cardiometabolic conditions (CMC) including hypertension, diabetes, obesity; and to explore clinical phenotypes of depressive symptoms in this population. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This secondary analysis utilized genomic and longitudinal clinical data from AAW in the InterGEN cohort (n = 250). EWAS data was used to estimate EAA based on the Horvath method, which incorporates the DNA methylation statuses at 353 specific CpG sites and regresses this epigenetic age on chronological age to determine EAA. Pearson’s correlations and linear regression will be used to examine the relationship between EAA and depressive symptoms and a linear mixed model will investigate this relationship over four time points during a two-year period. Clinical phenotyping of depressive symptoms will be explored using a cluster analysis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Analysis is underway and will be complete by the time of presentation. We hypothesize that higher EAA will associate with higher depressive symptoms and poorer trajectories over time. We expect that this relationship may be meditated by the presence of CMCs. Exploratory analysis of clinical phenotyping is expected to provide descriptive evidence with respect to specific depressive symptoms or clusters which are most associated with EAA and CMCs. These results will address several gaps. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the relationship of EAA and depressive symptoms considering the role of CMC, in a historically understudied population with disproportionate risk. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Depression limits life quality and quantity and is highly comorbid in CMC. AAW have high risk of comorbidity, and this study furthers knowledge of depression and aging with a clinically accessible marker and aids recognition of a heterogenous phenotype in an undertreated population.
The Wisconsin Twin Project encompasses nearly 30 years of longitudinal research that spans infancy to early adulthood. The twin sample was recruited from statewide birth records for birth cohorts 1989–2004. We summarize early recruitment, assessment, retention and recently completed twin neuroimaging studies. In addition to the focal twins, longitudinal data were also collected from two parents and nontwin siblings. Our adolescent and young adult neuroimaging sample (N = 600) completed several previous behavioral and environmental assessments, beginning shortly after birth. The extensive phenotyping is meant to support a range of empirical investigations with potentially differing theoretical perspectives.
The mammal family Tenrecidae (Afrotheria: Afrosoricida) is endemic to Madagascar. Here we present the conservation priorities for the 31 species of tenrec that were assessed or reassessed in 2015–2016 for the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Six species (19.4%) were found to be threatened (4 Vulnerable, 2 Endangered) and one species was categorized as Data Deficient. The primary threat to tenrecs is habitat loss, mostly as a result of slash-and-burn agriculture, but some species are also threatened by hunting and incidental capture in fishing traps. In the longer term, climate change is expected to alter tenrec habitats and ranges. However, the lack of data for most tenrecs on population size, ecology and distribution, together with frequent changes in taxonomy (with many cryptic species being discovered based on genetic analyses) and the poorly understood impact of bushmeat hunting on spiny species (Tenrecinae), hinders conservation planning. Priority conservation actions are presented for Madagascar's tenrecs for the first time since 1990 and focus on conserving forest habitat (especially through improved management of protected areas) and filling essential knowledge gaps. Tenrec research, monitoring and conservation should be integrated into broader sustainable development objectives and programmes targeting higher profile species, such as lemurs, if we are to see an improvement in the conservation status of tenrecs in the near future.
In this paper we explore differences in prosodic rhythm between two English speech communities in rural Southern Alberta, Canada: speakers of Blackfoot First Nation descent and those of settler descent. Using the Variability Index (VI), we show that there are statistically significant differences between English speakers of settler descent and those of Blackfoot descent, where those of Blackfoot descent have a higher VI, that is, they are further along the stress-timing continuum than those of settler descent. We hypothesize that these differences are due to language transfer effects stemming from the community's original Blackfoot phonology which were present in their L2 English when the community norm shifted primarily to English, and that the historical, social, and geographical isolation of Blackfoot people in Southern Alberta has contributed to the development of a new local Blackfoot English norm.
This study examined how native speakers of Spanish formulated sentences in English as a second language (L2) when randomly ordered words were orally presented. Participants included 206 adult literacy students (70 native Spanish speakers and 136 native English speakers) whose word reading equivalency was at third- through fifth-grade levels. The Word Ordering subtest of the Test of Language Development-3 was administered. Although they showed a similar pattern of performance in the sentence type (i.e., declarative, interrogative, or imperative sentence), the two groups showed a different pattern in the misuse of syntactic features. Pertaining to grammatical features, verbs were the most difficult item for the native speakers of Spanish. The findings of this study were explained through the intricate nature of English verbs as well as unique lexicalization patterns resulting from the typological difference between Spanish and English.
Background: Planning for neurology training necessitated a reflection on the experience of graduates. We explored practice characteristics, and training experience of recent graduates. Methods: Graduates from 2010-2014 completed a survey. Results: Response rate was 37% of 211. 56% were female. 91% were adult neurologists. 65% practiced in an outpatient setting. 63% worked in academics. 85% completed subspecialty training (median 1 year). 36% work 3 days a week or less. 82% took general call (median 1 night weekly). Role preparation was considered very good or excellent for most; however poor or fair ratings were 17% in advocacy and 8% in leadership. Training feedback was at least “good” for 87%. Burnout a few times a week or more was noted by 5% (6% during residency, particularly PGY1 and 5). 64% felt overly burdened by paperwork. Although most felt training was adequate, it was poor or fair at preparing for practice management (85%) and personal balance (55%). Most conditions were under-observed in training environment. Many noted a need for more independent practice development and community neurology. Conclusions: Although our training was found to be very good, some identified needs included advocacy training, and more training in general neurology in the longitudinal outpatient/community settings.
Ice cores provide a robust reconstruction of past climate. However, development of timescales by annual-layer counting, essential to detailed climate reconstruction and interpretation, on ice cores collected at low-accumulation sites or in regions of compressed ice, is problematic due to closely spaced layers. Ice-core analysis by laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) provides sub-millimeter-scale sampling resolution (on the order of 100 μm in this study) and the low detection limits (ng L−1) necessary to measure the chemical constituents preserved in ice cores. We present a newly developed cryocell that can hold a 1 m long section of ice core, and an alternative strategy for calibration. Using ice-core samples from central Greenland, we demonstrate the repeatability of multiple ablation passes, highlight the improved sampling resolution, verify the calibration technique and identify annual layers in the chemical profile in a deep section of an ice core where annual layers have not previously been identified using chemistry. In addition, using sections of cores from the Swiss/Italian Alps we illustrate the relationship between Ca, Na and Fe and particle concentration and conductivity, and validate the LA-ICP-MS Ca profile through a direct comparison with continuous flow analysis results.
Simplicity of construction and operation are advantages of iTMC (ionic transition metal complex) OLEDs compared with multi-layer OLED devices. Unfortunately, lifetimes do not compare favorably with the best multi-layer devices. We have previously shown for Ru(bpy)3(PF6)2 based iTMC OLEDs that electrical drive produces emission-quenching dimers of the active species. We report evidence here that a chemical process may also be implicated in degradation of devices based on Ir(ppy)2(dtb-bpy)PF6 albeit by a very different mechanism. It appears that degradation of operating devices made with this Ir-based complex is related to current-induced heating of the organic layer, resulting in loss of the dtb-bpy ligand. (The dtb-bpy ligand is labile compared with the cyclometallated ppy ligands.) Morphological changes observed in electrically driven Ir(ppy)2(dtb-bpy)PF6 OLEDs provide evidence of substantial heating during device operation. Evidence from UV-vis spectra in the presence of an electric field as well as MALDI-TOF mass spectra of the OLED materials before and after electrical drive add support for this model of the degradation process.
The present study determined whether parenting style, defined by control strategies varying in power-assertion mediated the established relation between maternal language usage (grammar and semantics) and child language (grammar, semantics and pragmatics) during toddlerhood (n=60). Based upon their use of control strategies mothers were categorized into continuum-of-control groups (i.e. high guidance (HG), high control (HC) or high negative control (HNC)). Mothers in the high negative control group, who characteristically used high levels of prohibitions and commands, had children who performed relatively poorly overall on the language measures (i.e. MLU, number of bound morphemes, number of different words and use of language functions). In contrast, children of mothers in the HG and HC groups exhibited more advanced language usage overall. The relation between maternal and child language usage was mediated by parenting style for child pragmatics and partially for child grammar.
To review experience with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in tertiary acute-care teaching hospitals on the Canadian prairies.
Retrospective review for a 36-month period, 1990 through 1992.
Five tertiary acute-care teaching hospitals in three Canadian prairie provinces.
MRSA isolates and susceptibility were identified through the clinical microbiology laboratory at each institution. For each patient, data collected included duration of institutional residence prior to isolation, patient ethnic background, age, sex, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Epidemiologic typing of strains used restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
Two hundred fifty-nine MRSA isolates were identified in 135 patients during the 36 months, with substantial institutional variation in number of isolates. No consistent increase in yearly numbers of isolates was apparent. Patients usually had MRSA identified at admission (62%); only one of five centers had the majority of isolates acquired nosocomially. Patients with MRSA present at admission were more frequently of aboriginal (First Nations) ethnicity (62% compared with 14% of nosocomial; P<0.001). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of 167 isolates from 135 patients revealed 46 different strains with little interprovincial or inter-institutional identity of strains.
MRSA isolated in patients in tertiary care institutions in these three Canadian provinces usually is acquired prior to admission. A disproportionate number of isolates are identified in aboriginal Canadians. Epidemiologic typing was consistent with a polyclonal origin of MRSA in this geographic area.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.