The African rice gall midge Orseolia oryzivora is a major pest of rice in Burkina Faso. The present study was carried out during four consecutive crop seasons from 1999 to 2001, in three rice-irrigated schemes, near Bobo Dioulasso town in south Burkina Faso. The fluctuation of immature stages of the pest and their damage, with regard to host plants was monitored. These included the cultivated rice Oryza sativa and its ratoons, and wild rice Oryza longistaminata. Sampling on growing rice was carried out monthly in 1m2 quadrats, in each of 100 randomly selected farmers fields. Sampling on rice ratoons was carried out after rice harvest and 500 tillers were randomly selected in the same fields and taken to the laboratory for dissection. Data on wild rice were collected every month by sampling and dissecting 500 tillers per site. This study revealed that in the absence of rice, the pest survived on rice ratoons and wild rice. However, cultivated rice was the preferred host plant as the crop recorded over 15% galling during wet seasons while damage was very low in dry seasons. Results from this study represent an important step towards the development of an IPM programme to control the rice gall midge, with regard to its host plant relationships.