To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In preparation for a multisite antibiotic stewardship intervention, we assessed knowledge and attitudes toward management of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) plus teamwork and safety climate among providers, nurses, and clinical nurse assistants (CNAs).
Prospective surveys during January–June 2018.
All acute and long-term care units of 4 Veterans’ Affairs facilities.
The survey instrument included 2 previously tested subcomponents: the Kicking CAUTI survey (ASB knowledge and attitudes) and the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ).
A total of 534 surveys were completed, with an overall response rate of 65%. Cognitive biases impacting management of ASB were identified. For example, providers presented with a case scenario of an asymptomatic patient with a positive urine culture were more likely to give antibiotics if the organism was resistant to antibiotics. Additionally, more than 80% of both nurses and CNAs indicated that foul smell is an appropriate indication for a urine culture. We found significant interprofessional differences in teamwork and safety climate (defined as attitudes about issues relevant to patient safety), with CNAs having highest scores and resident physicians having the lowest scores on self-reported perceptions of teamwork and safety climates (P < .001). Among providers, higher safety-climate scores were significantly associated with appropriate risk perceptions related to ASB, whereas social norms concerning ASB management were correlated with higher teamwork climate ratings.
Our survey revealed substantial misunderstanding regarding management of ASB among providers, nurses, and CNAs. Educating and empowering these professionals to discourage unnecessary urine culturing and inappropriate antibiotic use will be key components of antibiotic stewardship efforts.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Introduction: The literature reveals that residents spend significant amounts of time working with and charting in electronic medical records (EMR). As adoption of EMRs accelerates among emergency medicine (EM) departments, postgraduate programs will need to adapt curricula related to communication in the patient record. In order to make targeted changes, clinician-educators need a better understanding of how the documentation practices of trainees develop and change over residency, as well as the challenges they face in effectively charting. We gathered the perspectives of EM residents on data entry in the EMR to identify opportunities for such change. Methods: We recruited residents from all five years of the Royal College EM residency program at Queen's University and conducted focus groups from August to October 2018. Data collection was audio recorded and later transcribed. Line-by-line coding was performed independently by both AR and NP. A final codebook was validated by ZH. The codebook was then thematically analyzed to identify and characterize themes from the data. The study was approved by the Queen's University Health Sciences Research Ethics Board. Results: 15 EM residents participated. Groups discussed similar challenges with charting, including time constraints, ensuring sufficient, but appropriate detail, variable preceptor expectations, and an inability to draw diagrams. All residents noted formal teaching of the SOAP note framework during medical school and reported receiving an introductory EMR session. Groups highlighted the importance of feedback, especially from physicians with medicolegal experience. They also described more informal learning strategies, including receiving tips from preceptors during shifts and reading the notes of others. They also reported that changes in their documentation practices as junior and senior residents were largely due to a graduation of responsibility and medicolegal considerations. Conclusion: Our results suggest there is a lack of formal postgraduate training for EM residents with respect to documentation in the EMR with reliance on informal teaching and feedback. Future work should explore opportunities to address this gap with various educational strategies, including the development of specific objectives, application of consistent expectations, modelling of excellent chart notes in teaching, and instruction by preceptors with medicolegal experience.
Multiple studies have demonstrated that daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing is associated with a significant reduction in infections caused by gram-positive pathogens. However, there are limited data on the effectiveness of daily CHG bathing on gram-negative infections. The aim of this study was to determine whether daily CHG bathing is effective in reducing the rate of gram-negative infections in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients.
We searched MEDLINE and 3 other databases for original studies comparing daily bathing with and without CHG. Two investigators extracted data independently on baseline characteristics, study design, form and concentration of CHG, incidence, and outcomes related to gram-negative infections. Data were combined using a random-effects model and pooled relative risk ratios (RRs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived.
In total, 15 studies (n = 34,895 patients) met inclusion criteria. Daily CHG bathing was not significantly associated with a lower risk of gram-negative infections compared with controls (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.73–1.08; P = .24). Subgroup analysis demonstrated that daily CHG bathing was not effective for reducing the risk of gram-negative infections caused by Acinetobacter, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, or Pseudomonas spp.
The use of daily CHG bathing was not associated with a lower risk of gram-negative infections. Further, better designed trials with adequate power and with gram-negative infections as the primary end point are needed.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
The Working Party has developed some practical hints and tips for those developing integrated risk management (IRM) plans for UK defined benefit pension schemes in the context of the requirements of the Pensions Regulator. Four case studies are presented to illustrate its conclusions, which are encapsulated in the ten commandments for effective IRM. IRM is the consideration of investment, funding and covenant issues, and how these interact. Its purpose should be to aid decision making and so should have a clear outcome in mind. It should be a continuous process and should form part of everyday trustee governance – it is not simply a one-off exercise. Whilst most Trustees and advisors consider funding issues when setting their investment strategy and vice versa, fewer fully integrate covenant into their decision-making process. However, covenant underpins all risk taken in a pension scheme and so needs to form a regular part of trustee discussions and analysis by advisors.
Suicidal behaviour is an under-reported and hidden cause of death in most low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) due to lack of national systematic reporting for cause-specific mortality, high levels of stigma and religious or cultural sanctions. The lack of information on non-fatal suicidal behaviour (ideation, plans and attempts) in LMIC is a major barrier to design and implementation of prevention strategies. This study aims to determine the prevalence of non-fatal suicidal behaviour within community- and health facility-based populations in LMIC.
Twelve-month prevalence of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts were established through community samples (n = 6689) and primary care attendees (n = 6470) from districts in Ethiopia, Uganda, South Africa, India and Nepal using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview suicidality module. Participants were also screened for depression and alcohol use disorder.
We found that one out of ten persons (10.3%) presenting at primary care facilities reported suicidal ideation within the past year, and 1 out of 45 (2.2%) reported attempting suicide in the same period. The range of suicidal ideation was 3.5–11.1% in community samples and 5.0–14.8% in health facility samples. A higher proportion of facility attendees reported suicidal ideation than community residents (10.3 and 8.1%, respectively). Adults in the South African facilities were most likely to endorse suicidal ideation (14.8%), planning (9.5%) and attempts (7.4%). Risk profiles associated with suicidal behaviour (i.e. being female, younger age, current mental disorders and lower educational and economic status) were highly consistent across countries.
The high prevalence of suicidal ideation in primary care points towards important opportunities to implement suicide risk reduction initiatives. Evidence-supported strategies including screening and treatment of depression in primary care can be implemented through the World Health Organization's mental health Global Action Programme suicide prevention and depression treatment guidelines. Suicidal ideation and behaviours in the community sample will require detection strategies to identify at risks persons not presenting to health facilities.
A new approach is proposed to analyze Bremsstrahlung X-rays that are emitted from laser-produced plasmas (LPP) and are measured by a stack type spectrometer. This new method is based on a spectral tomographic reconstruction concept with the variational principle for optimization, without referring to the electron energy distribution of a plasma. This approach is applied to the analysis of some experimental data obtained at a few major laser facilities to demonstrate the applicability of the method. Slope temperatures of X-rays from LPP are determined with a two-temperature model, showing different spectral characteristics of X-rays depending on laser properties used in the experiments.
Proton therapy enables normal tissue sparing for curative-intent treatment of children with cancer who require radiation therapy. In the USA and elsewhere, proton therapy is being rapidly adopted, and many new proton centres are being established. Without a proton centre in Canada, children and their families must travel abroad for treatment at high cost and has raised the question whether a Canadian proton therapy facility is needed. METHODS: Canadian Pediatric Oncology centres were surveyed to assess current and future clinical practices. Needs were modeled by screening the Alberta Cancer Registry, ascertaining the number of children eligible for proton RT and comparing to the number who actually received this therapy. RESULTS: Most centres (63%) referred children, and 49 children were referred abroad between 2008 and 2013. Referrals were estimated to increase to 36 cases per annum across Canada. Most respondents (75%) supported that proton therapy will reduce late effects in most or selected cases compared to photon therapy. The registry search revealed 37,170 patients irradiated of which 379 children (1.0%) were potentially eligible for proton therapy, accounting for 15.9% of the new cases of childhood cancers diagnosed in Alberta over the interval. CONCLUSIONS: A strong perceived need for a pediatric proton therapy in Canada was identified. Proton therapy utilization was lower than modeled needs. Future referrals are anticipated to increase, with annual estimated cost of approximately $60 million spent outside of Canada that could be invested within the Canadian health care economy. These issues are worthy of further national discussion.
The inner few hundred parsecs of the Milky Way, the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ), is our closest laboratory for understanding star formation in the extreme environments (hot, dense, turbulent gas) that once dominated the universe. We present an update on the first large-area survey to expose the sites of star formation across the CMZ at high-resolution in submillimeter wavelengths: the CMZoom survey with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). We identify the locations of dense cores and search for signatures of embedded star formation. CMZoom is a three-year survey in its final year and is mapping out the highest column density regions of the CMZ in dust continuum and a variety of spectral lines around 1.3 mm. CMZoom combines SMA compact and subcompact configurations with single-dish data from BGPS and the APEX telescope, achieving an angular resolution of about 4″ (0.2 pc) and good image fidelity up to large spatial scales.
“Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS)” mission on-board GSAT-2 Indian spacecraft was launched on 08 May 2003 by GSLV-D2 and deployed in geostationery orbit to study the X-ray emission from solar flares with high spectral and temporal resolution. The SOXS consists of two independent payloads viz. SOXS Low Energy Detector (SLD) payload, and SOXS High Energy Detector (SHD) payload. The SLD consists of two solid state detectors Si PIN and CZT, which cover the energy range from 4-60 keV, while the SHD has NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) sandwiched phoswich detector that covers energy range from 20 keV to 10 MeV. We present very briefly the science objectives and instrumentation of SLD payload. After the successful In-orbit Tests (IOT), the first light was fed into SLD payload on 08 June 2003 when the solar flare was already in progress. We briefly present the first results from the SLD payload.
With the recent terrorist attacks in Paris and the continued use of IED’s employing TATP for delivering these threats, there is a real need for explosives detection at trace levels. This work describes the fabrication and characterization of metal oxide nanowires used as catalysts for the detection of energetic materials at trace levels. Recently, several oxide nanowires, based on zinc oxide and copper oxide, have been incorporated into our solid-state gas sensors as catalysts. These nanowire catalysts produced a dramatic increase in sensor response with improved selectivity for threat molecules of interest. The improved responses were attributed to a large increase in surface area available for catalyst/analyte interaction. Zinc oxide and copper oxide nanowires were grown by hydrothermal and controlled oxidation reactions, and were characterized using XRD, XPS and SEM to determine extent of crystallinity, oxidation state and morphology. Results indicated that energetic materials such as TATP and 2-6 DNT could be detected at the part per billion level using these nanowire catalysts. Other oxide nanowires are being considered as catalysts for the detection of explosives and are discussed as well.
Adults who experienced the 1992 and 2008 armed conflicts in the Republic of Georgia were exposed to multiple traumatic events and stressors over many years. The aim was to investigate what coping strategies are used by conflict-affected persons in Georgia and their association with mental disorders.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 3600 adults, representing internally displaced persons (IDPs) from conflicts in the 1990s (n = 1200) and 2008 (n = 1200) and former IDPs who returned to their homes after the 2008 conflict (n = 1200). Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety and coping strategies were measured using the Trauma Screening Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalised Anxiety and adapted version of the Brief Coping Inventory, respectively. Descriptive and multivariate regression analyses were used.
Coping strategies such as use of humour, emotional support, active coping, acceptance and religion were significantly associated with better mental health outcomes. Coping strategies of behavioural and mental disengagement, denial, venting emotions, substance abuse and gambling were significantly associated with poorer mental health outcomes. The reported use of coping strategies varied significantly between men and women for 8 of the 15 strategies addressed.
Many conflict-affected persons in Georgia are still suffering mental health problems years after the conflicts. A number of specific coping strategies appear to be associated with better mental health and should be encouraged and supported where possible.
Mental health service delivery models that are grounded in the local context are needed to address the substantial treatment gap in low- and middle-income countries.
To present the development, and content, of a mental healthcare plan (MHCP) in Nepal and assess initial feasibility.
A mixed methods formative study was conducted. Routine monitoring and evaluation data, including client flow and reports of satisfaction, were obtained from patients (n = 135) during the pilot-testing phase in two health facilities.
The resulting MHCP consists of 12 packages, divided over community, health facility and organisation platforms. Service implementation data support the real-life applicability of the MHCP, with reasonable treatment uptake. Key barriers were identified and addressed, namely dissatisfaction with privacy, perceived burden among health workers and high drop-out rates.
The MHCP follows a collaborative care model encompassing community and primary healthcare interventions.
Mastoid surgery carried out to treat chronic otitis media can lead to improvement in objective and subjective measures post-operatively. This study investigated the subjective change in quality of life using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory relative to the type of mastoid surgery undertaken.
A retrospective multicentre postal survey of 157 patients who underwent mastoid surgery from 2008 to 2012 was conducted.
Eighty-three questionnaire responses were received from patients who underwent surgery at one of three different hospitals (a response rate of 53 per cent). Fifty-seven per cent of patients had a Glasgow Benefit Inventory score of 0, indicating no change in quality of life post-operatively. Thirty-five per cent scored over 50, indicating significant improvement. The only significant difference found was that women fared worse after surgery than men.
The choice of mastoid surgery technique should be determined by clinical need and surgeon preference. There is no improvement in quality of life for most patients following mastoid surgery.
The postulated sites of perilymph fistulae involve otic capsule deficiencies, in particular, at the fissula ante fenestram. Histological studies have revealed this to be a channel extending from the middle ear, and becoming continuous with the inner ear medial to the anterior limit of the oval window. The relationship between a patent fissula and symptoms of perilymph fistula is contentious.
The understanding of the anatomy of the fissula ante fenestram is incomplete. Histopathology is inherently destructive to the delicate ultrastructure of the middle and inner ear. Conversely, X-ray microtomography allows non-destructive examination of the otic capsule. In this study, we used X-ray microtomography to characterise the fissula ante fenestram.
Materials and methods:
We imaged cadaveric temporal bones with X-ray microtomography. We used the Avizo Fire (Visualization Science Group, Merignac Cedex, France) software to perform post-processing and image analysis.
Three-dimensional modelling of the fissula ante fenestram allowed stratification into four forms: rudimentary pit; partial fissula; complete occluded fissula; and complete patent fissula.
X-ray microtomography showed that the fissula ante fenestram is present in various forms from rudimentary pit to complete deficiency of the otic capsule. This understanding may have implications for otologic surgery and clinical diagnosis of perilymph fistula.
The molecular epidemiology of pediatric Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is poorly understood. We aimed to identify the restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) groups causing CDI and to determine risk factors and outcomes associated with CDI caused by epidemic strains in children.
Retrospective cohort study
Inpatients and outpatients >1 year old receiving care between December 2012 and December 2013
An academic children’s hospital in Chicago, Illinois
C. difficile PCR-positive stools were cultured, and C. difficile isolates were typed by REA. REA of isolates from patients with multiple CDIs was performed to differentiate relapse (infection with same strain) from reinfection (different strains) irrespective of time between CDIs.
A total of 189 CDIs occurred among 145 patients. REA groups were widely distributed. The BI/NAP1/027 strain caused CDI in only 1 patient. DH/NAP11/106, the predominant epidemic strain identified, was associated with the use of third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins (risk ratio [RR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–9.9; P=.04). CDI relapse commonly occurred up to 20 weeks later. Compared with CDI caused by non-DH/NAP11/106 strains, CDI caused by DH/NAP11/106 was more likely to result in multiple CDI relapses (40% vs 8%; P=.05) among children with multiple CDIs.
REA identified the exceedingly low prevalence of BI/NAP1/027 and the high prevalence of DH/NAP11/106, a common epidemic strain in the United Kingdom that is less often reported in the United States. CDI relapse commonly occurred up to 20 weeks from the previous CDI. Defining recurrent CDI as that occurring only within 8 weeks of the original infection may lead to misclassification of some recurrent CDIs as new CDIs in children.
There are several ways planets can survive the giant phase of the host star, hence one can consider the case of Earth-like planets orbiting white dwarfs. As a white dwarf cools from 6000 K to 4000 K, a planet orbiting at 0.01 AU from the star would remain in the continuous habitable zone (CHZ) for about 8 Gyr. Polarisation due to a terrestrial planet in the CHZ of a cool white dwarf (CWD) is 102 (104) times larger than it would be in the habitable zone of a typical M-dwarf (Sun-like star). Polarimetry is thus a powerful tool to detect close-in planets around white dwarfs. Multi-band polarimetry would also allow one to reveal the presence of a planet atmosphere, even providing a first characterisation. With current facilities a super-Earth-sized atmosphereless planet is detectable with polarimetry around the brightest known CWD. Planned future facilities render smaller planets detectable, in particular by increasing the instrumental sensitivity in the blue. Preliminary habitability study show also that photosynthetic processes can be sustained on Earth-like planets orbiting CWDs and that the DNA-weighted UV radiation dose for an Earth-like planet in the CHZ is less than the maxima encountered on Earth, hence white dwarfs are compatible with the persistence of complex life from the perspective of UV irradiation.