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Individual with internet gaming disorder (IGD) often experience a high level of loneliness, and neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that amygdala function is associated with both IGD and loneliness. However, the neurobiological basis underlying these relationships remains unclear.
In the current study, Granger causal analysis was performed to investigate amygdalar subdivision-based resting-state effective connectivity differences between 111 IGD subjects and 120 matched participants with recreational game use (RGUs). We further correlated neuroimaging findings with clinical measures. Mediation analysis was conducted to explore whether amygdalar subdivision-based effective connectivity mediated the relationship between IGD severity and loneliness.
Compared with RGUs, IGD subjects showed inhibitory effective connections from the left pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) to the left laterobasal amygdala (LBA) and from the right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to the left LBA, as well as an excitatory effective connection from the left middle prefrontal gyrus (MFG) to the right superficial amygdala. Further analyses demonstrated that the left pACC-left LBA effective connection was negatively correlated with both Internet Addiction Test and UCLA Loneliness scores, and it mediated the relationship between the two.
IGD subjects and RGUs showed different connectivity patterns involving amygdalar subdivisions. These findings support a neurobiological mechanism for the relationship between IGD and loneliness, and suggest targets for therapeutic approaches that could be used to treat IGD.
Diet has a major influence on the composition and metabolic output of the gut microbiome. Higher-protein diets are often recommended for older consumers; however, the effect of high-protein diets on the gut microbiota and faecal volatile organic compounds (VOC) of elderly participants is unknown. The purpose of the study was to establish if the faecal microbiota composition and VOC in older men are different after a diet containing the recommended dietary intake (RDA) of protein compared with a diet containing twice the RDA (2RDA). Healthy males (74⋅2 (sd 3⋅6) years; n 28) were randomised to consume the RDA of protein (0⋅8 g protein/kg body weight per d) or 2RDA, for 10 weeks. Dietary protein was provided via whole foods rather than supplementation or fortification. The diets were matched for dietary fibre from fruit and vegetables. Faecal samples were collected pre- and post-intervention for microbiota profiling by 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon sequencing and VOC analysis by head space/solid-phase microextraction/GC-MS. After correcting for multiple comparisons, no significant differences in the abundance of faecal microbiota or VOC associated with protein fermentation were evident between the RDA and 2RDA diets. Therefore, in the present study, a twofold difference in dietary protein intake did not alter gut microbiota or VOC indicative of altered protein fermentation.
Feathers play a critical role in thermoregulation and directly influence poultry production. Poor feathering adversely affects living appearance and carcass quality, thus reducing profits. However, producers tend to ignore the importance of feather development and do not know the laws of feather growth and development. The objective of this study was to fit growth curves to describe the growth and development of feathers in yellow-feathered broilers during the embryonic and posthatching periods using different nonlinear functions (Gompertz, logistic and Bertalanffy). Feather mass and length were determined during the embryonic development and posthatching stages to identify which growth model most accurately described the feather growth pattern. The results showed that chick embryos began to grow feathers at approximately embryonic (E) day 10, and the feathers grew rapidly from E13 to E17. There was little change from E17 to the day of hatching (DOH). During the embryonic period, the Gompertz function (Y = 798.48e−203 431exp(−0.87t), Akaike’s information criterion (AIC) = −0.950 × 103, Bayesian information criterion (BIC) = −0.711 × 103 and mean square error (MSE) = 559.308) provided the best fit for the feather growth curve compared with the other two functions. After hatching, feather mass and length changed little from the DOH to day (D) 14, increased rapidly from D21 to D91 and then grew slowly after D91. The first stage of feather molting occurred from 2 to 3 weeks of age when the down feathers were mostly shed and replaced with juvenile feathers, and the second stage occurred at approximately 13 to 15 weeks of age. The three nonlinear functions could overall fit the feather growth curve well, but the Bertalanffy model (Y = 116.88 × (1−0.86e−0.02t)3, AIC = 1.065 × 105, BIC = 1.077 × 105 and MSE = 11.308) showed the highest degree of fit among the models. Therefore, the Gompertz model exhibited the best goodness of fit for the feather growth curve during the embryonic development, while the Bertalanffy model was the most suitable model due to its accurate ability to predict the growth and development of feathers during the growth period, which is an important commercial characteristic of yellow-feathered chickens.
There is increasing public concern about poultry welfare; the quality of animal welfare is closely related to the quality of livestock products and the health of consumers. Good animal welfare promotes the healthy growth of poultry, which can reduce the disease rate and improve the production quality and capacity. As behaviour responses are an important expression of welfare, the study of behaviour is a simple and non-invasive method to assess animal welfare. The use of modern technology offers the possibility to monitor the behaviour of broilers and laying hens in a continuous and automated way. This paper reviews the latest technologies used for monitoring the behaviour of broilers and laying hens under both experimental conditions and commercial applications and discusses the potential of developing a precision livestock farming (PLF) system. The techniques that are presented and discussed include sound analysis, which can be an online tool to automatically monitor poultry behaviour non-invasively at the group level; wireless, wearable sensors with radio-frequency identification devices, which can automatically identify individual chickens, track the location and movement of individuals in real time and quantify some behavioural traits accordingly and image processing technology, which can be considered a direct tool for measuring behaviours, especially activity behaviours and disease early warning. All of these technologies can monitor and analyse poultry behaviour, at the group level or individual level, on commercial farms. However, the popularity and adoption of these technologies has been hampered by the logistics of applying them to thousands and tens of thousands of birds on commercial farms. This review discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques in commercial applications and presents evidence that they provide potential tools to automatically monitor the behaviours of broilers and laying hens on commercial farms. However, there still has a long way to go to develop a PLF system to detect and predict abnormal situations.
The B-biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) has become extremely resistant to commonly used insecticides in China. To further explore the mechanisms of resistance to diafenthiuron, the diafenthiuron induction profiles of carboxylesterase (COE1), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and seven cytochrome P450 genes in both resistant (R-DfWf) and susceptible (S-Lab) strains were characterized. The detoxification genes GST, CYP6CX4, CYP6DW3, CYP6DZ6 and CYP9F, which are known to be constitutively over-expressed in the R-DfWf strain, were significantly upregulated in R-DfWf and S-Lab strains exposed to diafenthiuron at LC50 compared with their levels in strains treated with distilled water (controls); however, CYP6CX1, another detoxification gene, was not upregulated. The upregulation was more pronounced in the R-DfWf strain than in the S-Lab strain exposed to different concentrations of diafenthiuron (LC10 or LC50). Interestingly, COE1, CYP6CM1 and CYP6A, which are not constitutively over-expressed in the R-DfWf strain, were all significantly upregulated after exposure to diafenthiuron. Similarly, significant differences in the expression of these detoxification genes, with the exception of CYP6CM1 in the S-Lab strain, were also observed after exposure to diafenthiuron. However, the induction of CYP6A and COE1 was more pronounced in the S-Lab strain than in the R-DfWf strain after treatment with diafenthiuron at both concentrations, indicating that diafenthiuron induction of CYP6CM1 is specific to the R-DfWf strain, while diafenthiuron induction of the other genes is common to both the R-DfWf and S-Lab strains. These results demonstrate that multiple detoxification genes are co-upregulated in the R-DfWf strain through both constitutive over-expression and induction mechanisms. This knowledge will be useful for rational selection of insecticides for use in resistance management and control of this species.
Electronic medical records (EMR) provide a unique opportunity for efficient, large-scale clinical investigation in psychiatry. However, such studies will require development of tools to define treatment outcome.
Natural language processing (NLP) was applied to classify notes from 127 504 patients with a billing diagnosis of major depressive disorder, drawn from out-patient psychiatry practices affiliated with multiple, large New England hospitals. Classifications were compared with results using billing data (ICD-9 codes) alone and to a clinical gold standard based on chart review by a panel of senior clinicians. These cross-sectional classifications were then used to define longitudinal treatment outcomes, which were compared with a clinician-rated gold standard.
Models incorporating NLP were superior to those relying on billing data alone for classifying current mood state (area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.85–0.88 v. 0.54–0.55). When these cross-sectional visits were integrated to define longitudinal outcomes and incorporate treatment data, 15% of the cohort remitted with a single antidepressant treatment, while 13% were identified as failing to remit despite at least two antidepressant trials. Non-remitting patients were more likely to be non-Caucasian (p<0.001).
The application of bioinformatics tools such as NLP should enable accurate and efficient determination of longitudinal outcomes, enabling existing EMR data to be applied to clinical research, including biomarker investigations. Continued development will be required to better address moderators of outcome such as adherence and co-morbidity.
The homotopy analysis method (HAM) is applied to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) emerging from a closure model of the von Kármán–Howarth equation which models the decay of isotropic turbulence. In the infinite Reynolds number limit, the von Kármán–Howarth equation admits a symmetry reduction leading to the aforementioned one-parameter ODE. Though the latter equation is not fully integrable, it can be integrated once for two particular parameter values and, for one of these values, the relevant boundary conditions can also be satisfied. The key result of this paper is that for the generic case, HAM is employed such that solutions for arbitrary parameter values are derived. We obtain explicit analytical solutions by recursive formulas with constant coefficients, using some transformations of variables in order to express the solutions in polynomial form. We also prove that the Loitsyansky invariant is a conservation law for the asymptotic form of the original equation.
The temporal and spatial X-ray emission from PPG-X, an X-pinch driven by pulsed power generator, was studied by using diamond photo-conducting detectors and pinhole cameras. It was found that the X-ray pulse usually consists of two sub-nanosecond peaks with a time interval of about 0.5 ns, these two X-ray peaks are consistent with two point sources of X-ray recorded with pinhole camera. The total X-ray energy changes from shot to shot and is averaged to be 0.35 J for hν > 1.5 keV. The size of the X-ray point source is in the range from 100 µm to 5 µm, decreasing rapidly with the increase of the photon energy. The X-pinch was used as X-ray source for backlighting the electrical explosion of single wire and for phase-contrast imaging of a mosquito.
The test on an X-pinch device powered by a pulsed power generator (PPG-I) was carried out step by step. In the first step, a brass rod of 6 mm in diameter was used as a load to replace the X-pinch load. The results of the first step shows that all the current, about 200 kA in amplitude, output from PPG-I flows through the load and no breakdown or flashover in vacuum of the load section happens. The waveform of the current from PPG-I measured with a wall resistor coincides exactly with that of the load current measured with a Rogowski coil, which indicates that the calibrations of the wall resistor and Rogowski coil are correct. In the second step, an X-pinch load made of two molybdenum wires of 40 µm in diameter was used. It was found that the distance between the cathode and anode affects considerably the operation of the device. While breakdown in vacuum happens for the distance equal to 30 mm, it works very well for the distance equal to 16 mm. The reason for this phenomenon was given.
The objective of this investigation is to formulate a model to predict the theoretical strength for styrene-diene thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) that takes into account the failure processes occurring at the molecular level. Styrenic TPEs may fail via either chain pull-out, in which the polystyrene (PS) end-blocks are pulled out of the glassy PS domains, or chain scission, in which the C-C bonds in the elastomer mid-blocks are ruptured. By relating the microscopic deformation of an individual chain to the macroscopic strain rate, the maximum force a chain can sustain is obtained. The theoretical strength of the material is then computed by determining the force sustained by the PS domains and matrix chain sections intersecting a planar unit area at the onset of failure. The model has been used to investigate the effect of PS molecular weight, PS content, and strain rate on the ultimate strength.
Deep defects in annealed InP have been investigated by deep level transient
capacitance spectroscopy (DLTS), photo induced current transient spectroscopy
(PICTS) and thermally stimulated current spectroscopy (TSC). Both DLTS results
of annealed semiconducting InP and PICTS and TSC results of annealed
semi-insulating InP indicate that InP annealed in phosphorus ambient has five
defects, while InP annealed in iron phosphide ambient has two defects. Such a
defect formation phenomenon is explained in terms of defect suppression by the
iron atom diffusion process. The correlation of the defects and the nature of
the defects in annealed InP are discussed based on the results.
The evolution of interfacial microstructure of eutectic SnAgCu and SnPb solders on Al/Ni(V)/Cu thin films was investigated after various heat treatments. In the eutectic SnPb system, the Ni(V) layer was well protected after 20 reflow cycles at 220 °C. In the SnAgCu solder system, after 5 reflow cycles at 260 °C, the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 ternary phase formed and Sn was detected in the Ni(V) layer. After 20 reflow cycles, the Ni(V) layer disappeared and spalling of the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 was observed, which explains the transition to brittle failure mode after ball shear testing. The different interfacial reactions that occurred in the molten SnAgCu and SnPb systems were explained in terms of different solubilities of Cu in the two systems. The dissolution and formation of the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5phase were discussed on the basis of a Sn–Ni–Cu phase diagram. In the solid-state aging study of the SnAgCu samples annealed at 150 °C for up to 1000 h, the Ni(V) layer was intact and the intermetallic compound formed was Cu6Sn5 and not (Cu,Ni)6Sn5, which is the same as was observed for the eutectic SnPb system.
Recent studies have suggested that allergic fungal rhino-sinusitis could be involved in the development of nasal polyposis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of anti-fungal nasal lavages. Patients performed nasal lavage with 20 ml of a one per one thousand amphotericin B suspension in each nostril, twice a day, for four weeks. In addition, all patients continued their saline nasal lavage and their conventional topical corticosteroid spray. This study included 74 patients, with a mean age of 46 years (range from 19 to 73). Before anti-fungal treatment, the distribution of nasal polyposis, according to Malm, was: 13 patients in stage I (17.5 per cent), 48 patients in stage II (65 per cent) and 13 patients in stage III (17.5 per cent). After anti-fungal nasal lavages, the total disappearance of nasal polyposis was observed in 29 patients (39 per cent). Eight patients were stage I, 21 stage II, and none stage III. In patients who have had previous endoscopic polypectomy and functional endoscopic sinus surgery, total disappearance of nasal polyposis was seen in 24 patients (47 per cent). Hyper-reactivity to fungal organisms could be one of the mechanisms underlying the development of nasal polyposis. A direct effect of amphotericin B suspension on the integrity of the cell membrane of the polyps’ epithelium could not be excluded.
Intermetallic compound (IMC) growth during solid-state aging at 125, 150, and 170 °C up to 1500 h for four solder alloys (eutectic SnPb, Sn–3.5Ag, Sn–3.8Ag–0.7Cu, and Sn–0.7Cu) on Cu under bump metallization was investigated. The samples were reflowed before aging. During the reflow, the solders were in the molten state and the formation of the IMC Cu6Sn5 in the cases of eutectic SnPb and Sn–3.5Ag had a round scallop-type morphology, but in Sn–0.7Cu and Sn–3.8Ag–0.7Cu the scallops of Cu6Sn5 were faceted. In solid-state aging, all these scallops changed to a layered-type morphology. In addition to the layered Cu6Sn5, the IMC Cu3Sn also grew as a layer and was as thick as the Cu6Sn5. The activation energy of intermetallic growth in solid-state aging is 0.94 eV for eutectic SnPb and about 1.05 eV for the Pb-free solders. The rate of intermetallic growth in solid-state aging is about 4 orders of magnitude slower than that during reflow. Ternary phase diagrams of Sn–Pb–Cu and Sn–Ag–Cu are used to discuss the reactions. These diagrams predict the first phase of IMC formation in the wetting reaction and the other phases formed in solid-state aging. Yet, the morphological change and the large difference in growth rates between the wetting reaction and solid-state aging cannot be predicted.
Recent advances in the preparation of gallium nitride (GaN) and related compounds have made possible the production of blue semiconductor laser. Conventional preparation involves growing GaN thin films on lattice-mismatching sapphire using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). In this article, we describe an alternative method to produce a lattice-matching strained layer in GaAs for subsequent GaN growth by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) followed by rapid thermal annealing. Our novel approach uses broad ion impact energy distribution and multiple implant voltages to form a spread-out nitrogen depth profile and an amorphous surface layer. This approach circumvents the retained dose and low nitrogen content problems associated with ion beam implantation at fix energy. Based on our Raman study, the resulting structure after PIII and rapid thermal annealing is strained and contains some GaN possibly in crystal form
Boron was incorporated into GaN in order to determine its limits of solubility, its ability of reducing the lattice constant mismatch with 6H-SiC, as well as its effects on the structural and optical properties of GaN epilayers. BxGa1−xN films were deposited on 6H-SiC (0001) substrates at 950 °C by low pressure MOVPE using diborane, trimethylgallium, and ammonia as precursors. A single phase alloy with x=0.015 was successfully produced at a gas reactant B/Ga ratio of 0.005. Phase separation into pure GaN and BxGa1−xN alloy with x=0.30 was deposited for a B/Ga reactant ratio of 0.01. This is the highest B fraction of the wurtzite structure alloy ever reported. For B/Ga ratio ≥ 0.02, no BxGa1−xN was formed, and the solid solution contained two phases: wurtzite GaN and BN based on the results of Auger and x-ray diffraction. The band edge emission of BxGa1−xN varied from 3.451 eV for x=0 with FWHM of 39.2 meV to 3.465 eV for x=0.015 with FWHM of 35.1 meV. The narrower FWHM indicated that the quality of GaN epilayer was improved with small amount of boron incorporation.
Collapsing shock-bounded cavities in fast/slow (F/S) spherical
configurations give rise to expelled jets and vortex rings. In this paper,
simulate with the Euler equations planar shocks interacting with an R12
spherical bubble. We visualize and quantify results that show evolving
downstream complex wave patterns and emphasize the appearance of vortex
We examine how the magnitude of these structures scales with Mach number.
collapsing shock cavity within the bubble causes secondary shock refractions
interface and an expelled weak jet at low Mach number. At higher Mach numbers
(e.g. M=2.5) ‘vortical projectiles’ (VP) appear on
the downstream side of the bubble.
The primary VP arises from the delayed conical vortex layer generated at
disk which forms as a result of the interaction of the curved incoming
that collide on the downstream side of the bubble. These rings grow in
manner and their circulation is a function of the incoming shock Mach number.
M=5.0, it is of the same order of magnitude as the primary negative
deposited on the bubble interface. Also at M=2.5 and 5.0 a double
arises near the apex of the bubble and moves off the interface. It evolves
into a VP,
an asymmetric diffuse double ring, and moves radially beyond the apex of
bubble. Our simulations of the Euler equations were done with a second-order-accurate
Harten–Yee-type upwind TVD scheme with an approximate Riemann Solver
resolution of 803×123 with a bubble of radius 55 zones.
Boron was incorporated into GaN in order to determine its limits of solubility, its ability of reducing the lattice constant mismatch with 6H-SiC, as well as its effects on the structural and optical properties of GaN epilayers. BxGal-xN films were deposited on 6H-SiC (0001) substrates at 950 °C by low pressure MOVPE using diborane, trimethylgallium, and ammonia as precursors. A single phase alloy with x=0.015 was successfully produced at a gas reactant B/Ga ratio of 0.005. Phase separation into pure GaN and BxGal-xN alloy with x=0.30 was deposited for a B/Ga reactant ratio of 0.01. This is the highest B fraction of the wurtzite structure alloy ever reported. For B/Ga ratio ≥ 0.02, no BxGal-xN was formed, and the solid solution contained two phases: wurtzite GaN and BN based on the results of Auger and x-ray diffraction. The band edge emission of BxGal-xN varied from 3.451 eV for x=0 with FWHM of 39.2 meV to 3.465 eV for x=0.015 with FWHM of 35.1 meV. The narrower FWHM indicated that the quality of GaN epilayer was improved with small amount of boron incorporation.
We have developed a solution delivery technique for performing copper CVD using the reduction of Cu(hfac)2 [where H(hfac) = 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionel. We have obtained deposition rates of up to 3.6 mg cm−2 hr−1 (ca. 60 nm min−1) for a deposition temperature of 300 °C and reactor conditions of 40 Torr H2, 12 Torr isopropanol, and 1 Torr Cu(hfac)2. The increased rates are several times faster than growth rates observed using conventional Cu(hfac)2 sublimation with pure H2 as the carrier gas. We compare growth rates and film microstructure using TiN- and WNx-coated substrates. We also give preliminary results showing how the partial pressures of H2, i-PrOH, and Cu(hfac)2 each influence the deposition rate.