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Based on the vulnerability–stress model, we aimed to (1) determine new onset of depression in individuals who had not shown evidence of depression at baseline (5 years earlier) and (2) identify social, psychological, behavioral, and somatic predictors.
Longitudinal data of N = 10 036 participants (40–79 years) were evaluated who had no evidence of depression at baseline based on Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), no history of depression, or intake of antidepressants. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to predict the onset of depression.
Prevalence of new cases of depression was 4.4%. Higher rates of women (5.1%) than men (3.8%) were due to their excess incidence <60 years of age. Regression analyses revealed significant social, psychological, behavioral, and somatic predictors: loneliness [odds ratio (OR) 2.01; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48–2.71], generalized anxiety (OR 2.65; 1.79–3.85), social phobia (OR 1.87; 1.34–2.57), panic (OR 1.67; 1.01–2.64), type D personality (OR 1.85; 1.47–2.32), smoking (OR 1.35; 1.05–1.71), and comorbid cancer (OR 1.58; 1.09–2.24). Protective factors were age (OR 0.88; 0.83–0.93) and social support (OR 0.93; 0.90–0.95). Stratified by sex, cancer was predictive for women; for men smoking and life events. Entered additionally, the PHQ-9 baseline score was strongly predictive (OR 1.40; 1.34–1.47), generalized anxiety became only marginally, and panic was no longer predictive. Other predictors remained significant, albeit weaker.
Psychobiological vulnerability, stress, and illness-related factors were predictive of new onset of depression, whereas social support was protective. Baseline subclinical depression was an additional risk weakening the relationship between anxiety and depression by taking their overlap into account. Vulnerability factors differed between men and women.
Yeasts are the first micro-organism that become active in the silage upon exposure to air, using the residual sugars and lactic acid to produce carbon dioxide. Maize silage is particularly prone to spoilage as maize silage tends to have a larger concentration of water soluble carbohydrates, which was considered to be a better substrate for micro-organisms than volatile fatty acids (Auerbach et al., 1998). The aim of this experiment was to measure the effect of inoculating maize silage with Maize-all GS (inoculant) and Sil-all Fireguard (inoculant and preservative) on aerobic stability.
Major depression and anxiety disorders are known to negatively influence cognitive performance. Moreover, there is evidence for greater cognitive decline in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder. Except for clinical studies, complex executive planning functions and subclinical levels of anxiety have not been examined in a population-based sample with a broad age range.
Planning performance was assessed using the Tower of London task in a population-based sample of 4240 participants aged 40–80 years from the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) and related to self-reported anxiety and depression by means of multiple linear regression analysis.
Higher anxiety ratings were associated with lower planning performance (β = −0.20; p < 0.0001) independent of age (β = 0.03; p = 0.47). When directly comparing the predictive value of depression and anxiety on cognition, only anxiety attained significance (β = −0.19; p = 0.0047), whereas depression did not (β = −0.01; p = 0.71).
Subclinical levels of anxiety but not of depression showed negative associations with cognitive functioning independent of age. Our results demonstrate that associations observed in clinical groups might differ from those in population-based samples, also with regard to the trajectory across the life span. Further studies are needed to uncover causal interrelations of anxiety and cognition, which have been proposed in the literature, in order to develop interventions aimed at reducing this negative affective state and to improve executive functioning.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious illness leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. The treatment of AN very often is protracted; repeated hospitalizations and lost productivity generate substantial economic costs in the health care system. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the differential cost-effectiveness of out-patient focal psychodynamic psychotherapy (FPT), enhanced cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT-E), and optimized treatment as usual (TAU-O) in the treatment of adult women with AN.
The analysis was conducted alongside the randomized controlled Anorexia Nervosa Treatment of OutPatients (ANTOP) study. Cost-effectiveness was determined using direct costs per recovery at 22 months post-randomization (n = 156). Unadjusted incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated. To derive cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs) adjusted net-benefit regressions were applied assuming different values for the maximum willingness to pay (WTP) per additional recovery. Cost–utility and assumptions underlying the base case were investigated in exploratory analyses.
Costs of in-patient treatment and the percentage of patients who required in-patient treatment were considerably lower in both intervention groups. The unadjusted ICERs indicated FPT and CBT-E to be dominant compared with TAU-O. Moreover, FPT was dominant compared with CBT-E. CEACs showed that the probability for cost-effectiveness of FTP compared with TAU-O and CBT-E was ⩾95% if the WTP per recovery was ⩾€9825 and ⩾€24 550, respectively. Comparing CBT-E with TAU-O, the probability of being cost-effective remained <90% for all WTPs. The exploratory analyses showed similar but less pronounced trends.
Depending on the WTP, FPT proved cost-effective in the treatment of adult AN.
In this paper the Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy program at the University of Adelaide is described. VHE gamma rays with energies above ~5 × 1011eV are observed using the atmospheric Cerenkov technique. Results from the first three years observations at Woomera and the current upgrading of the telecope are described. The CANGAROO project, a collaboration between the University of Adelaide and a number of Japanese institutions, is also introduced.
The CANGAROO project incorporates two Čerenkov imaging telescopes at Woomera to obtain stereo images of very high-energy gamma-ray (and cosmic-ray) showers. The first stereo observations, with one imaging system, were made in March 1992, and preliminary stereo imaging observations began in July 1992. This paper describes the stereo imaging technique, the sources under investigation, and the indications from the first data sets.
The design and construction of the 30 m2 Bicentennial Gamma Ray Telescope at Woomera South Australia is described. This novel instrument is now completed and commissioning is underway. It is designed to observe astronomical sources at energies greater than ∼ 500 GeV by means of atmospheric Cerenkov light. It contains 55 spherical, glass mirrors of focal length 2.66 m arranged in three groups of 10 m2, to focus the light onto three sets of detectors operated in fast co-incidence. The recording electronics includes a rubidium clock to enable pulsars to be studied.
Accumulating evidence links childhood adversity to negative health outcomes in adulthood. However, most of the available evidence is retrospective and subject to recall bias. Published reports have sometimes focused on specific childhood exposures (e.g. abuse) and/or specific outcomes (e.g. major depression). Other studies have linked childhood adversity to a large and diverse number of adult risk factors and health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease. To advance this literature, we undertook a broad examination of data from two linked surveys. The goal was to avoid retrospective distortion and to provide a descriptive overview of patterns of association.
A baseline interview for the Canadian National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth collected information about childhood adversities affecting children aged 0–11 in 1994. The sampling procedures employed in a subsequent study called the National Population Health Survey (NPHS) made it possible to link n = 1977 of these respondents to follow-up data collected later when respondents were between the ages of 14 and 27. Outcomes included major depressive episodes (MDE), some risk factors and educational attainment. Cross-tabulations were used to examine these associations and adjusted estimates were made using the regression models. As the NPHS was a longitudinal study with multiple interviews, for most analyses generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used. As there were multiple exposures and outcomes, a statistical procedure to control the false discovery rate (Benjamini–Hochberg) was employed.
Childhood adversities were consistently associated with a cluster of potentially related outcomes: MDE, psychotropic medication use and smoking. These outcomes may be related to one another since psychotropic medications are used in the treatment of major depression, and smoking is strongly associated with major depression. However, no consistent associations were observed for other outcomes examined: physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking or educational attainment.
The conditions found to be the most strongly associated with childhood adversities were a cluster of outcomes that potentially share pathophysiological connections. Although prior literature has suggested that a very large number of adult outcomes, including physical inactivity and alcohol-related outcomes follow childhood adversity, this analysis suggests a degree of specificity with outcomes potentially related to depression. Some of the other reported adverse outcomes (e.g. those related to alcohol use, physical inactivity or more distal outcomes such as obesity and cardiovascular disease) may emerge later in life and in some cases may be secondary to depression, psychotropic medication use and smoking.
This paper provides an overview of interpolation of Banach and Hilbert spaces, with a focus on establishing when equivalence of norms is in fact equality of norms in the key results of the theory. (In brief, our conclusion for the Hilbert space case is that, with the right normalizations, all the key results hold with equality of norms.) In the final section we apply the Hilbert space results to the Sobolev spaces
and an open
. We exhibit examples in one and two dimensions of sets
for which these scales of Sobolev spaces are not interpolation scales. In the cases where they are interpolation scales (in particular, if
is Lipschitz) we exhibit examples that show that, in general, the interpolation norm does not coincide with the intrinsic Sobolev norm and, in fact, the ratio of these two norms can be arbitrarily large.
Considerable evidence now links childhood adversity to a variety of adult health problems. Unfortunately, almost all of these studies have relied upon retrospective assessment of childhood events, creating a vulnerability to bias. In this study, we sought to examine three associations using data sources that allowed for both prospective and retrospective assessment of childhood events.
Methods. A 1994 national survey of children between the ages of 0 and 11 collected data from a ‘person most knowledgeable’ (usually the mother) about a child. It was possible to link data for n = 1977 of these respondents to data collected from the same people in a subsequent adult study. The latter survey included retrospective reports of childhood adversity. We examined three adult health outcomes in relation to prospectively and retrospectively assessed childhood adversity: major depressive episodes, excessive alcohol consumption and painful conditions.
Results. A strong association between childhood adversities (as assessed by both retrospective and prospective methods) and major depression was identified although the association with retrospective assessment was stronger. Weaker associations were found for painful conditions, but these did not depend on the method of assessment. Associations were not found for excessive alcohol consumption irrespective of the method of assessment.
These findings help to allay concerns that associations between childhood adversities and health outcomes during adulthood are merely artefacts of recall bias. In this study, retrospective and prospective assessment strategies produced similar results.
A cloud monitor has been developed for use with cosmic ray air shower fluorescence detectors, the High Resolution Fly's Eye and the Pierre Auger Observatory. This is based on an infrared thermopile device which, unlike previous such monitors, requires no moving chopper and is suitable for unattended operation over long periods of time.
Practical astronomy is usually taught using optical telescopes or, more rarely, radio telescopes. For a similar cost, complementary studies may be made of astrophysical particles through the use of a modestly sized muon detector. Such a detector records the arrival of cosmic ray particles that have traversed the heliosphere and the rate of muon detections reflects the flux of those particles. That flux is controlled by the day to day properties of the heliosphere which is in a state of constant change as the outflowing solar wind is affected by solar activity. As a consequence, a laboratory muon detector, whose count rate depends on the state of the heliosphere, can be an interesting and useful teaching tool that is complementary to optical or radio studies of the Sun.
Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture takes advantage of the mutualism between some detritivorous fish and phytoplankton. The fish recycle nutrients by consuming live (and dead) algae and provide the inorganic carbon to fuel the growth of live algae. In the meanwhile, algae purify the water and generate the oxygen required by fishes. Such mechanism stabilizes the functioning of an artificially recycling ecosystem, as exemplified by combining the euryhaline tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron heudelotii and the unicellular alga Chlorella sp. Feed addition in this ecosystem results in faster fish growth but also in an increase in phytoplankton biomass, which must be limited. In the prototype described here, the algal population control is exerted by herbivorous zooplankton growing in a separate pond connected in parallel to the fish–algae ecosystem. The zooplankton production is then consumed by tilapia, particularly by the fry and juveniles, when water is returned to the main circuit. Chlorella sp. and Brachionus plicatilis are two planktonic species that have spontaneously colonized the brackish water of the prototype, which was set-up in Senegal along the Atlantic Ocean shoreline. In our system, water was entirely recycled and only evaporation was compensated (1.5% volume/day). Sediment, which accumulated in the zooplankton pond, was the only trophic cul-de-sac. The system was temporarily destabilized following an accidental rotifer invasion in the main circuit. This caused Chlorella disappearance and replacement by opportunist algae, not consumed by Brachionus. Following the entire consumption of the Brachionus population by tilapias, Chlorella predominated again. Our artificial ecosystem combining S. m. heudelotii, Chlorella and B. plicatilis thus appeared to be resilient. This farming system was operated over one year with a fish productivity of 1.85 kg/m2 per year during the cold season (January to April).
In this article we describe recent progress on the design, analysis and implementation of hybrid numerical-asymptotic boundary integral methods for boundary value problems for the Helmholtz equation that model time harmonic acoustic wave scattering in domains exterior to impenetrable obstacles. These hybrid methods combine conventional piecewise polynomial approximations with high-frequency asymptotics to build basis functions suitable for representing the oscillatory solutions. They have the potential to solve scattering problems accurately in a computation time that is (almost) independent of frequency and this has been realized for many model problems. The design and analysis of this class of methods requires new results on the analysis and numerical analysis of highly oscillatory boundary integral operators and on the high-frequency asymptotics of scattering problems. The implementation requires the development of appropriate quadrature rules for highly oscillatory integrals. This article contains a historical account of the development of this currently very active field, a detailed account of recent progress and, in addition, a number of original research results on the design, analysis and implementation of these methods.
We consider scattering of a time harmonic incident plane wave by a convex polygon with piecewise constant impedance boundary conditions. Standard finite or boundary element methods require the number of degrees of freedom to grow at least linearly with respect to the frequency of the incident wave in order to maintain accuracy. Extending earlier work by Chandler-Wilde and Langdon for the sound soft problem, we propose a novel Galerkin boundary element method, with the approximation space consisting of the products of plane waves with piecewise polynomials supported on a graded mesh with smaller elements closer to the corners of the polygon. Theoretical analysis and numerical results suggest that the number of degrees of freedom required to achieve a prescribed level of accuracy grows only logarithmically with respect to the frequency of the incident wave.
The properties of thin films prepared by coevaporation of Y, Cu and Ba.F2, followed by post anneals in O2/H2O, are described. In particular, we emphasize what is known about. the relationship between the processing variables and the physical and chemical structure of the resulting films.
A new method  of calculating the free energy difference between two crystalline structures is presented. The method involves a single simulation which repeatedly transforms the system between the two crystal phases. Since the configurations of both structures are sampled within a single Monte Carlo process, the difference between their free energies can be evaluated directly from the ratio of the measured probabilities of each. Compared with traditional techniques, the method is most advantageous when applied to highly anharmonic systems. To illustrate the method, an application to the free energy difference between the fee and hep structures of hard spheres is described.