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Abnormalities in reward circuit function are considered a core feature of addiction. Yet, it is still largely unknown whether these abnormalities stem from chronic drug use, a genetic predisposition, or both.
In the present study, we investigated this issue using a large sample of adolescent children by applying structural equation modeling to examine the effects of several dopaminergic polymorphisms of the D1 and D2 receptor type on the reward function of the ventral striatum (VS) and orbital frontal cortex (OFC), and whether this relationship predicted the propensity to engage in early alcohol misuse behaviors at 14 years of age and again at 16 years of age.
The results demonstrated a regional specificity with which the functional polymorphism rs686 of the D1 dopamine receptor (DRD1) gene and Taq1A of the ANKK1 gene influenced medial and lateral OFC activation during reward anticipation, respectively. Importantly, our path model revealed a significant indirect relationship between the rs686 of the DRD1 gene and early onset of alcohol misuse through a medial OFC × VS interaction.
These findings highlight the role of D1 and D2 in adjusting reward-related activations within the mesocorticolimbic circuitry, as well as in the susceptibility to early onset of alcohol misuse.
This study aims to investigate existing evidence for the effectiveness of psychological treatments and/or antidepressant medication as a treatment for those diagnosed with moderate levels of depression.
A PRISMA systematic review of articles using electronic research databases (2000–2014) was conducted to identify studies investigating the effectiveness of psychotherapy and/or medication as a treatment for people with moderate levels of depression. Search terms included moderate depression, psychotherapy and/or medication, depressive disorders, antidepressants, psychotherapy, mental health services, and randomized-controlled trial (RCT). The included studies were then assessed, extracted, and synthesised.
A total of 14 studies met the inclusion criteria (11 RCTs and three additional studies) for this review. The findings of the systematic review indicate that there is limited evidence available specific to the treatment of moderate depression and that this research seems to suggest that psychotherapy or combined treatment has a beneficial effect.
Given that depression is one of the biggest challenges the world faces at present, further research is required to examine the effectiveness of treatment for different levels of depression severity.
Disorders of balance often pose a diagnostic conundrum for clinicians, and a multitude of investigations have emerged over the years. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing is a diagnostic tool which can be used to assess vestibular function. Over recent years, extensive study has begun to establish a broader clinical role for vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing.
To provide an overview of vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing, and to present the evidence for its clinical application.
Structured literature search according to evidence-based medicine guidelines, performed between November 2008 and April 2009. No restrictions were applied to the dates searched.
The benefits of vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing have already been established as regards the diagnosis and monitoring of several clinical conditions. Researchers continue to delve deeper into potential new clinical applications, with early results suggesting promising future developments.
The RAPD technique was used to distinguish two forms of
Melampsora rust on Salix viminalis. Fifteen
isolates of the stem-infecting form and 19 of the leaf-infecting form
collected from the U.K. were tested with 10 arbitrary primers. All
the primers generated polymorphic bands and 46 putative loci were
examined. Seven primers gave a total of eight bands specific for the
stem-infecting form and four primers produced five bands
characteristic of the leaf-infecting form. Cluster analysis using
Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Averaging (UPGMA) revealed 62%
disagreement between the two forms. The RAPD band patterns of the
stem-infecting form isolates were almost identical, while those of
the leaf-infecting isolates showed up to 29% variation.
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