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We have found a class of circular radio objects in the Evolutionary Map of the Universe Pilot Survey, using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The objects appear in radio images as circular edge-brightened discs, about one arcmin diameter, that are unlike other objects previously reported in the literature. We explore several possible mechanisms that might cause these objects, but none seems to be a compelling explanation.
To assess the contribution of different food groups to total salt purchases and to evaluate the estimated reduction in salt purchases if mandatory maximum salt limits in South African legislation were being complied with.
This study conducted a cross-sectional analysis of purchasing data from Discovery Vitality members. Data were linked to the South African FoodSwitch database to determine the salt content of each food product purchased. Food category and total annual salt purchases were determined by summing salt content (kg) per each unit purchased across a whole year. Reductions in annual salt purchases were estimated by applying legislated maximum limits to product salt content.
The study utilised purchasing data from 344 161 households, members of Discovery Vitality, collected for a whole year between January and December 2018.
Vitality members purchased R12·8 billion worth of food products in 2018, representing 9562 products from which 264 583 kg of salt was purchased. The main contributors to salt purchases were bread and bakery products (23·3 %); meat and meat products (19 %); dairy (12·2 %); sauces, dressings, spreads and dips (11·8 %); and convenience foods (8·7 %). The projected total quantity of salt that would be purchased after implementation of the salt legislation was 250 346 kg, a reduction of 5·4 % from 2018 levels.
A projected reduction in salt purchases of 5·4 % from 2018 levels suggests that meeting the mandatory maximum salt limits in South Africa will make a meaningful contribution to reducing salt purchases.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
This study investigated whether the single-use rhinolaryngoscope is clinically and economically comparable to the conventional reusable rhinolaryngoscope within a tertiary otolaryngology centre in the UK.
A non-blinded, prospective and single-arm evaluation was carried out over a 5-day period, in which micro-costing was used to compare single-use rhinolaryngoscopes with reusable rhinolaryngoscopes.
Overall, 68 per cent of the investigators perceived the single-use rhinolaryngoscope to be ‘good’ or ‘very good’, while 85 per cent believed the single-use rhinolaryngoscope could replace the reusable rhinolaryngoscope (n = 59). The incremental costs of reusable rhinolaryngoscope eyepieces and videoscopes in the out-patient clinic, when compared to single-use rhinolaryngoscopes, were £30 and £11, respectively. The incremental costs of reusable rhinolaryngoscope eyepieces and videoscopes in the acute surgical assessment unit, when compared to single-use rhinolaryngoscopes, were −£4 and −£73, respectively.
The single-use rhinolaryngoscope provides a clinically comparable, and potentially cost-minimising, alternative to the reusable rhinolaryngoscope for use in the acute surgical assessment unit of our hospital.
To report feasibility, early outcomes and challenges of implementing a 14-day threshold for undertaking surgical tracheostomy in the critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patient.
Twenty-eight coronavirus disease 2019 patients underwent tracheostomy. Demographics, risk factors, ventilatory assistance, organ support and logistics were assessed.
The mean time from intubation to tracheostomy formation was 17.0 days (standard deviation = 4.4, range 8–26 days). Mean time to decannulation was 15.8 days (standard deviation = 9.4) and mean time to intensive care unit stepdown to a ward was 19.2 days (standard deviation = 6.8). The time from intubation to tracheostomy was strongly positively correlated with: duration of mechanical ventilation (r(23) = 0.66; p < 0.001), time from intubation to decannulation (r(23) = 0.66; p < 0.001) and time from intubation to intensive care unit discharge (r(23) = 0.71; p < 0.001).
Performing a tracheostomy in coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients at 8–14 days following intubation is compatible with favourable outcomes. Multidisciplinary team input is crucial to patient selection.
The low-frequency linearly polarised radio source population is largely unexplored. However, a renaissance in low-frequency polarimetry has been enabled by pathfinder and precursor instruments for the Square Kilometre Array. In this second paper from the POlarised GaLactic and Extragalactic All-Sky MWA Survey-the POlarised GLEAM Survey, or POGS-we present the results from our all-sky MWA Phase I Faraday Rotation Measure survey. Our survey covers nearly the entire Southern sky in the Declination range
at a resolution between around three and seven arcminutes (depending on Declination) using data in the frequency range 169−231 MHz. We have performed two targeted searches: the first covering 25 489 square degrees of sky, searching for extragalactic polarised sources; the second covering the entire sky South of Declination
, searching for known pulsars. We detect a total of 517 sources with 200 MHz linearly polarised flux densities between 9.9 mJy and 1.7 Jy, of which 33 are known radio pulsars. All sources in our catalogues have Faraday rotation measures in the range
rad m−2. The Faraday rotation measures are broadly consistent with results from higher-frequency surveys, but with typically more than an order of magnitude improvement in the precision, highlighting the power of low-frequency polarisation surveys to accurately study Galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields. We discuss the properties of our extragalactic and known-pulsar source population, how the sky distribution relates to Galactic features, and identify a handful of new pulsar candidates among our nominally extragalactic source population.
To make a power spectrum (PS) detection of the 21-cm signal from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), one must avoid/subtract bright foreground sources. Sources such as Fornax A present a modelling challenge due to spatial structures spanning from arc seconds up to a degree. We compare modelling with multi-scale (MS) CLEAN components to ‘shapelets’, an alternative set of basis functions. We introduce a new image-based shapelet modelling package, SHAMFI. We also introduce a new CUDA simulation code (WODEN) to generate point source, Gaussian, and shapelet components into visibilities. We test performance by modelling a simulation of Fornax A, peeling the model from simulated visibilities, and producing a residual PS. We find the shapelet method consistently subtracts large-angular-scale emission well, even when the angular resolution of the data is changed. We find that when increasing the angular resolution of the data, the MS CLEAN model worsens at large angular scales. When testing on real Murchison Widefield Array data, the expected improvement is not seen in real data because of the other dominating systematics still present. Through further simulation, we find the expected differences to be lower than obtainable through current processing pipelines. We conclude shapelets are worthwhile for subtracting extended galaxies, and may prove essential for an EoR detection in the future, once other systematics have been addressed.
1. analyze urinary protein exosome content pattern before and during DASH diet.
2. characterize urine electrolyte changes associated with changes in protein profiles, and hormonal changes before/after DASH diet.
3. analyze the association of these changes to the DASH-related BP response.
METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In this proof of concept study, hypertension stage 1 volunteers will receive a DASH based menu during 14 consecutive days of elective admission to the RU research hospital. Participants will complete a food frequency questionnaire (VioScreen) with a bionutritionist. Throughout the intervention period, participants will be assessed for blood pressure, plasma renin and aldosterone, and 24 hour urines for electrolytes, creatinine, protein, albumin and first morning urine collected for exosomes. Exosome analysis will be performed by a commercial lab. Proteome analysis will be conducted in the RU Mass-spectrometry service. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The causal pathway we will elucidate hypothesizes that: 1) changes in diet affect blood electrolytes, and through these, aldosterone. 2) Aldosterone alters the expression of specific transporter proteins in the renal tubule; protein expression will be reflected in the urine exosome. 3) These transporters affect the excretion of electrolytes, as reflected by urinary ratio of sodium (Na) to Potassium (K). During consumption of the Western diet, the Na/K ratio is approximately 2-2.5, whereas we expect the urinary sodium/potassium ratio to be <1, when the participant is eating a DASH based diet. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This assay provides a clinical tool to assess dietary adherence, and the project will provide insights into the mechanism whereby DASH reduces blood pressure.
No externally validated tests are available for routine use to confirm clinical diagnosis of major psychiatric disorders. Eye movement abnormalities that distinguish schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have only recently been described. Evidence of oculomotor dysfunction specific to endogenous major depressive disorder (MDD) would represent discovery of a significant endophenotypic interface between psychotic and affective disorders. Out-patients meeting DSM criteria for MDD (n=68, F:M=40:28, median age=49 (IQR 38-57) years) participated in a series of tasks while eye movements were recorded using an EyeLink 1000 infra-red video tracker. Patients' characteristics at time of assessment included median illness duration of 13 years (IQR= 7-23; n=53 available cases), HADS anxiety=11 (IQR 7-15) and depression=9 (IQR 4-11), BDI=27 (IQR 16-33), BPRS= 25 (IQR 20-29) and estimated IQ= 106 (IQR 96-118; n=42). Performance measures from smooth pursuit, picture viewing, and steady fixation were analysed alongside data from controls, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder cases. A neural network was able to delineate the clinical and control groups with sensitivity=90.4% and specificity=97.1%. Multivariate tests of group differences post hoc revealed that MDD cases were on average poorest in maintaining steady gaze during the fixation task, mirroring the neuropsychological evidence for dysregulation of executive function in prefrontal brain regions. Bipolar and unipolar affective cases performed similarly on smooth pursuit and picture viewing tests, but were systematically different from schizophrenia and control groups. If differences are replicated in further cases, the MDD eye movement marker could be an important tool for psychiatric research, allowing for easier delineation of the major disorders.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects at some point in their lives a tenth of the world's population with a higher incidence in females than males. Like all clinical disorders encountered in adult psychiatry, a diagnosis of MDD is symptom-based and has not been externally validated. Eye movement dysfunctions (EMDs) in the functional psychoses have been extensively reported and their potential as biomarkers highlighted but it is unclear whether there are patterns of EMDs specific to MDD. Abnormal EMs in bipolar affective cases have been observed during face and picture viewing, saccadic control and smooth pursuit tasks. However most studies reporting EMs in affective disorders, have not distinguished between unipolar/MDD and bipolar cases. to address this problem we have compared performance on a broad range of EM tests in patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for MDD with identical measures made in a large sample of bipolar, schizophrenia and undiagnosed individuals. Remarkably a network classifier was able to delineate controls and each patient group using EM performance measures with exceptional sensitivity (94%) and specificity (98%). What is more, probability of illness category was not associated with demographic, symptom, neuropsychological or medication variables. It therefore appears that a unique multivariate eye movement phenotype may be associated with MDD. If verified in further MDD cases these findings could be an enormous advance in helping to assess and/or diagnose individuals with symptoms of MDD or at risk of developing MDD.
It has been estimated that the global burden of suicide is a million deaths per year (WHO, 2014). Rates of self-harm in British South Asian (BSA) women are higher compared to their white counterparts. Limited evidence is available on effective preventative strategies and culturally sensitive interventions for these patients.
To understand common perceptions about self-harm, identify any barriers to accessing services and service improvement recommendations including appropriate interventions for BSA women.
To examine the views of health professionals on the culturally adapted problem solving therapy (C-MAP) in BSA women.
The design was a qualitative study using focus group discussion. This is part of a larger exploratory trial, to test a culturally adapted problem solving therapy (C-MAP) in British South Asian women who have a history of self-harm (Husain et al., 2011). Three focus groups were held with Asian lay members of the community, health professionals and service users. The data was analysed using a manual content analysis and indexing technique.
Results showed lack of identification of self-harm by health professionals. Common self-harm methods reported were serious overdoses, use of household chemicals, burning and cutting. Lack of trust in GP s was one common reason for non-disclosure of self-harm behaviour. Need for increased awareness, working along with local Imams, better cultural sensitivity among health professionals and non-judgmental support were some solutions offered to address these barriers.
The results of this study have provided insight into developing strategies to prevent and manage self-harm in British South Asian women.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Observational studies have linked elevated homocysteine to vascular conditions. Folate intake has been associated with lower homocysteine concentration, although randomised controlled trials of folic acid supplementation to decrease the incidence of vascular conditions have been inconclusive. We investigated determinants of maternal homocysteine during pregnancy, particularly in a folic acid-fortified population.
Data were from the Ottawa and Kingston Birth Cohort of 8085 participants. We used multivariable regression analyses to identify factors associated with maternal homocysteine, adjusted for gestational age at bloodwork. Continuous factors were modelled using restricted cubic splines. A subgroup analysis examined the modifying effect of MTHFR 677C>T genotype on folate, in determining homocysteine concentration.
Participants were recruited in Ottawa and Kingston, Canada, from 2002 to 2009.
Women were recruited when presenting for prenatal care in the early second trimester.
In 7587 participants, factors significantly associated with higher homocysteine concentration were nulliparous, smoking and chronic hypertension, while factors significantly associated with lower homocysteine concentration were non-Caucasian race, history of a placenta-mediated complication and folic acid supplementation. Maternal age and BMI demonstrated U-shaped associations. Folic acid supplementation of >1 mg/d during pregnancy did not substantially increase folate concentration. In the subgroup analysis, MTHFR 677C>T modified the effect of folate status on homocysteine concentration.
We identified determinants of maternal homocysteine relevant to the lowering of homocysteine in the post-folic acid fortification era, characterised by folate-replete populations. A focus on periconceptional folic acid supplementation and improving health status may form an effective approach to lower homocysteine.
How can people achieve successful communication when using novel signs? Previous studies show that iconic signs (i.e. signs that directly resemble their referent) enhance communication success. In this paper, we test if enculturated signs (i.e. signs informed by interlocutors’ shared culture) also enhance communication success. Children, who have spent less time in their linguistic community, have less cultural knowledge to inform their sign innovation. A natural prediction is that younger children's signs will be less enculturated, more diverse and less successful compared with older children and adults. We examined sign innovation in children aged between 6 and 12 years (N = 54) and adults (N = 18). Sign enculturation, diversity and iconicity were rated. As predicted, younger children innovated less enculturated and more diverse signs, and communicated less successfully than older children and adults. Sign enculturation and iconicity uniquely contributed to communication success. This is the first study to demonstrate that enculturated signs enhance communication.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.
We have detected 27 new supernova remnants (SNRs) using a new data release of the GLEAM survey from the Murchison Widefield Array telescope, including the lowest surface brightness SNR ever detected, G 0.1 – 9.7. Our method uses spectral fitting to the radio continuum to derive spectral indices for 26/27 candidates, and our low-frequency observations probe a steeper spectrum population than previously discovered. None of the candidates have coincident WISE mid-IR emission, further showing that the emission is non-thermal. Using pulsar associations we derive physical properties for six candidate SNRs, finding G 0.1 – 9.7 may be younger than 10 kyr. Sixty per cent of the candidates subtend areas larger than 0.2 deg2 on the sky, compared to < 25% of previously detected SNRs. We also make the first detection of two SNRs in the Galactic longitude range 220°–240°.
This work makes available a further
of the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array (GLEAM) survey, covering half of the accessible galactic plane, across 20 frequency bands sampling 72–231 MHz, with resolution
. Unlike previous GLEAM data releases, we used multi-scale CLEAN to better deconvolve large-scale galactic structure. For the galactic longitude ranges
$345^\circ < l < 67^\circ$
$180^\circ < l < 240^\circ$
, we provide a compact source catalogue of 22 037 components selected from a 60-MHz bandwidth image centred at 200 MHz, with RMS noise
and position accuracy better than 2 arcsec. The catalogue has a completeness of 50% at
, and a reliability of 99.86%. It covers galactic latitudes
towards the galactic centre and
for other regions, and is available from Vizier; images covering
for all longitudes are made available on the GLEAM Virtual Observatory (VO).server and SkyView.
We examined the latest data release from the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array (GLEAM) survey covering 345° < l < 60° and 180° < l < 240°, using these data and that of the Widefield Infrared Survey Explorer to follow up proposed candidate Supernova Remnant (SNR) from other sources. Of the 101 candidates proposed in the region, we are able to definitively confirm ten as SNRs, tentatively confirm two as SNRs, and reclassify five as H ii regions. A further two are detectable in our images but difficult to classify; the remaining 82 are undetectable in these data. We also investigated the 18 unclassified Multi-Array Galactic Plane Imaging Survey (MAGPIS) candidate SNRs, newly confirming three as SNRs, reclassifying two as H ii regions, and exploring the unusual spectra and morphology of two others.
Given the evidence of multi-parameter risk factors in shaping cognitive outcomes in aging, including sleep, inflammation, cardiometabolism, and mood disorders, multidimensional investigations of their impact on cognition are warranted. We sought to determine the extent to which self-reported sleep disturbances, metabolic syndrome (MetS) factors, cellular inflammation, depressive symptomatology, and diminished physical mobility were associated with cognitive impairment and poorer cognitive performance.
This is a cross-sectional study.
Participants with elevated, well-controlled blood pressure were recruited from the local community for a Tai Chi and healthy-aging intervention study.
One hundred forty-five older adults (72.7 ± 7.9 years old; 66% female), 54 (37%) with evidence of cognitive impairment (CI) based on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score ≤24, underwent medical, psychological, and mood assessments.
CI and cognitive domain performance were assessed using the MoCA. Univariate correlations were computed to determine relationships between risk factors and cognitive outcomes. Bootstrapped logistic regression was used to determine significant predictors of CI risk and linear regression to explore cognitive domains affected by risk factors.
The CI group were slower on the mobility task, satisfied more MetS criteria, and reported poorer sleep than normocognitive individuals (all p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that sleep disturbances, but no other risk factors, predicted increased risk of evidence of CI (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.26–4.87, 99% CI: 1.08–7.48). Further examination of MoCA cognitive subdomains revealed that sleep disturbances predicted poorer executive function (β = –0.26, 95% CI: –0.51 to –0.06, 99% CI: –0.61 to –0.02), with lesser effects on visuospatial performance (β = –0.20, 95% CI: –0.35 to –0.02, 99% CI: –0.39 to 0.03), and memory (β = –0.29, 95% CI: –0.66 to –0.01, 99% CI: –0.76 to 0.08).
Our results indicate that the deleterious impact of self-reported sleep disturbances on cognitive performance was prominent over other risk factors and illustrate the importance of clinician evaluation of sleep in patients with or at risk of diminished cognitive performance. Future, longitudinal studies implementing a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and objective sleep measurement are warranted to further explore these associations.