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Sleep alterations are frequent occurrence in Bipolar Disorder (BD), both in acute and interepisodic phases. Sleep alterations have been also described both long before BD onset, as aspecific risk syndromes, or as immediate prodromes of BD onset. The aim of the present study is to systematically review the relationship between sleep alterations anticipating for the full-blown onset of BD, both in general and according to specific polarities of onset.
A systematic literature research according to PRISMA statement and considering: 1. prospective studies about BD patients’ offspring with sleep alterations who later developed BD. 2. prospective studies assessing patients with sleep disorders who later developed BD. 3. retrospective studies on BD patients where sleep alterations before BD onset of the disease were reported.
A total of 16 studies were included in this review. Sleep disturbances may frequently appear 1 year before the onset of BD or more, often during childhood or adolescence. A decreased need for sleep may precede the onset of the illness, specially a manic episode, while insomnia appears to anticipate either a manic or a depressive episode. Hypersomnia seems to precede bipolar depressive episodes.
Sleep alterations frequently appear long before the onset of BD, and appear to be related specifically to the polarity of the index episode. The detection and treatment of sleep alterations in special high risk populations may help achieving an earlier detection of the illness.
Deliberate self-harm (DSH) causes important concern in prison inmates as it worsens morbidity and increases the risk for suicide. The aim of the present study is to investigate the prevalence and correlates of DSH in a large sample of male prisoners.
A cross-sectional study evaluated male prisoners aged 18+ years. Current and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II Disorders and with the Addiction Severity Index-Expanded Version. DSH was assessed with The Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify independent correlates of lifetime DSH.
Ninety-three of 526 inmates (17.7%) reported at least 1 lifetime DSH behavior, and 58/93 (62.4%) of those reported a DSH act while in prison. After multivariable adjustment (sensitivity 41.9%, specificity 96.1%, area under the curve = 0.854, 95% confidence interval CI = 0.811–0.897, P < 0.001), DSH was significantly associated with lifetime psychotic disorders (adjusted Odds Ratio aOR = 6.227, 95% CI = 2.183–17.762, P = 0.001), borderline personality disorder (aOR = 6.004, 95% CI = 3.305–10.907, P < 0.001), affective disorders (aOR = 2.856, 95% CI = 1.350–6.039, P = 0.006) and misuse of multiple substances (aOR = 2.024, 95% CI = 1.111–3.687, P = 0.021).
Borderline personality disorder and misuse of multiple substances are established risk factors of DSH, but psychotic and affective disorders were also associated with DSH in male prison inmates. This points to possible DSH-related clinical sub-groups, that bear specific treatment needs.
The “schizophrenia spectrum” concept allowed better identifying the psychopathology underpinning disorders including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder (SZA) and cluster A personality disorders (PD).
To compare the clinical portrait of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders, focusing on the impact of the affective dimension.
Inpatients at the acute psychiatric ward of Perugia (Umbria-Italy) were evaluated with the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders and diagnosed with a “schizophrenia spectrum” disorder according to DSM-IV-TR. The clinical evaluation was conducted using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS). Pearson correlations of the different subscales in the three groups and between the negative scales with the affective symptom “depression” were conducted.
The sample consisted of 72 inpatients (schizophrenia 55.6%, SZA 20% and cluster A PD 19.4%). The negative and the general psychopathology scales directly correlated at different degrees in the three groups (schizophrenia: r = 0.750; P < 0.001; SZA: r = 0.625, P = 0.006; cluster A PD: r = 0.541, P = 0.046). The symptom “depression” directly correlated with 5 out of 7 negative symptoms: blunted affect (r = 0.616, P < 0.001), emotional withdrawal (r = 0.643, P < 0.001), poor rapport (r = 0.389, P = 0.001), passive/apathetic social withdrawal (r = 0.538, P < 0.001), lack of spontaneity & flow of conversation (r = 0.399, P = 0.001).
Our study confirmed the existence of the “schizophrenia spectrum” with combined different disorders lying on a continuum in which negative symptoms mainly correlated with the psychopathological functioning. Noteworthy, the symptoms of the negative scale strongly correlated with the “depression” symptom, underlying the impact of the affective symptoms on the severity of the “schizophrenia spectrum” disorders.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
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