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Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
Previous genetic studies on hair morphology focused on the overall morphology of the hair using data collected by self-report or researcher observation. Here, we present the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of a micro-level quantitative measure of hair curvature. We compare these results to GWAS results obtained using a macro-level classification of observable hair curvature performed in the same sample of twins and siblings of European descent. Observational data were collected by trained observers, while quantitative data were acquired using an Optical Fibre Diameter Analyser (OFDA). The GWAS for both the observational and quantitative measures of hair curvature resulted in genome-wide significant signals at chromosome 1q21.3 close to the trichohyalin (TCHH) gene, previously shown to harbor variants associated with straight hair morphology in Europeans. All genetic variants reaching genome-wide significance for both GWAS (quantitative measure lead single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs12130862, p = 9.5 × 10–09; observational measure lead SNP rs11803731, p = 2.1 × 10–17) were in moderate to very high linkage disequilibrium (LD) with each other (minimum r2 = .45), indicating they represent the same genetic locus. Conditional analyses confirmed the presence of only one signal associated with each measure at this locus. Results from the quantitative measures reconfirmed the accuracy of observational measures.
To establish the main sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of a sample of inpatients admitted at the Brief Hospitalization Psychiatry Unit from the University Hospital of Valladolid, Spain during 2005.
Descriptive study of a sample of inpatients (n=160) admitted in 2005 by means of the discharge report. Sociodemographic variables include age, sex, civil status and both socioeconomic and education levels; clinical variables include diagnosis according ICD and DSM-IV criteria, substance use, duration of admission and pharmacological treatment.
The type patient is a male between 31 and 40 years or a woman between 51 and 60 years, single, with a middle socioeconomic and education levels. Substance use is frequently found in male patients, mainly concerning several substances. Mean duration of admission was about 13 days. Women usually are diagnosed of affective disorders and men of adaptive disorders associated with substance use; schizophrenia also appears more frequently in men.
The characteristic patient admitted at the Brief Hospitalization Psychiatry Unit from the University Hospital of Valladolid, Spain in 2005 is either a male between 31 and 40 years suffering from adaptive disorders and substance use, or schizophrenia, or a woman between 51 and 60 years diagnosed of affective disorders.
Verbal memory and processing speed are two of the proposed neurocognitive predictors in schizophrenia. the objective is to determinate neurocognitive predictors of functioning in one five years follow-up period on ambulatory schizophrenia patients.
We conduct one cohort study on 30 schizophrenia out-patients (19 male; age mean: 32.8 years; SD:7.2). at the moment of inclusion it was applied one neuropsychological battery sensitive to neuropsychological deficit in schizophrenia: WAIS-III, BADS, WCST, Colour Trails, Trail Making A and B, BVRT, California Verbal Learning Test (Spanish version: TAVEC). Variables was summarized determining Z values and principal components. the cohort was prospectively studied for up to five years. as result variables it were considered: time to the first antipsychotic-drug change, time to the first psychiatric admission, and average five-years annual score in the Strauss-Carpenter Outcome Scale. It was constructed Cox and Linear Regression Models to determinate the better predicting neurocognitive components.
The better global outcome was directly related with WAIS-III processing speed index (corrected R square: 0.19; p = 0.02; beta constant= 0.469; beta WAIS-III processing speed= 0.125). None predictor was selected for the outcome variable change of antipsychotic. Psychiatric admission was predicted (p=0.006) by implicit learning (beta= -2.19), executive functioning (beta= 1.02), WAIS-III Total IQ (beta= 0.45) and WAIS-III Perceptual Organization Index (beta= -0.20).
Higher processing speed index predicts one better functioning outcome during five-years follow-up. the risk for psychiatric admission was heterogeneously related with neurocognitive predictors. Verbal memory did not predict functional outcome.
Social cognition is presently an important focus in rehabilitation of patients wish schizophrenic psychoses. Emotion recognition in one of its different components, the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR) is a therapy program specifically developed aiming at improving affect recognition.
To test if the material of the TAR program in terms a series of facial affect cards is reliable for emotion recognition in a Spanish control population.
A sample of Spanish control subjects were shown the TAR's series of facial affect cards. It includes the following emotions: happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, angry and disgust, and the neutral facial affect. Reliability was assessed by means of the kappa coefficient. Kappa values higher than 0.4 were considered reliable, the following criterion was accepted: kappa values < 0.4, low reliability; 0.4 to 0.75, moderate reliability; > 0.76, strong reliability.
The sample was formed by subjects from the general population with no previous history of psychiatric disorders (n = 20). The following kappa values were obtained: happiness, 0.8406 (CI 0.7744–0.9068), sadness, 0.6171 (CI 0.5377–0.6964), surprise, 0.6582 (CI 0.5859–0.7304), fear, 0.4509 (CI 0.3569–0.5448), angry, 0.6252 (CI 0.5464–0.7040), disgust, 0.7700 (CI 0.6943–0.8456), neutral, 0.5534 (CI 0.4663–0.6404).
In a preliminary study in a sample of 20 Spanish control subjects using the TAR's series of facial affect cards, the six basic emotions and the neutral facial affect were recognized with at least a moderate reliability. A strong reliability was obtained in happiness and disgust, and a moderate reliability in surprise, angry, sadness, neutral, fear.
Drug-induced psychosis and drug abuse/dependence in schizophrenia are new clinical problems due to the increasing prevalence of drug consumption in this population. the objective is to know if the abuse/dependence of illegal drugs may influence the duration of acute hospitalization in schizophrenia.
It was conducted a retrospective cohort study on a sample of 256 acute hospitalizations of patients with schizophrenia and related disorders in Valladolid (Spain) between 2004 and 2006. at the moment of admission 82 patients had active drug abuse/dependence and 174 did not. A Cox proportional-hazards regression model was constructed considering drug abuse/dependence as predicting factor and length of stay as result variable.
The mean length of stay was 12.2 days (SD= 7.5) in the group without drug abuse/dependence and 7.7 days (SD= 29.0) in the drug group (means difference p=0.05). When abuse/dependence of drugs is present, the risk of discharge at any moment during the hospitalization increases in 34% (p=0.04). When Global Assessment of Functioning at the moment of admission is included in the regression model, the results remain significant (risk 35%, p=0.047). Clinical status at discharge was significantly better for the drug users group. Drug users were more frequently at his/her first hospitalization (58.2% versus 35.2%; p=0.001).
In schizophrenia, abuse/dependence of drugs is associated with a 34% lower duration of acute hospitalization. This fact might be due to a relevant proportion of drug-induced psychosis who recovers earlier than idiopathic schizophrenia episodes.
Eating disorders, represented in the spanish adolescent population a prevalence of 3,5% to 5,5% (Labrador-and-Raich.2007), increasing day by day in our treatment centres. Multiple diseases are based on the pattern of Impulsivity, which must be studied in their overall comorbidity, because the general approach to their differents etiologies, could have a focus on a Unique Therapeutic Plan (UTP).
There is a high comorbidity between the Impulsivity seen in Eating Disorders(ED) such as Bulimia Nervosa, Obesity, Binge(ED), Pica, among others, and externalizing disorders, because of their low tolerance to frustraction and low awareness of delimit, and many times there is also the presence of disorders related to substance use.
Demostrate by reviewing a case, the diagnostic comorbidity between Bulimia Nervosa and one type to Attention Déficit Disorder with Hyperactivity, associated with a pattern of substance abuse, with the same effective psychoterapeutic and psychofarmacological treatment, and demostrading, the posible same Neurobiological root.
Adolescent with 16 years old, with four years ago of hyporexia, vomits and binge, with hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity. (BMI=17), in the context of greater family dysfunction and school bullying. There was cannabis abuse. He had received treatment with antipsychotics, antidepressives and mood stabilizers. By age 14, he was diagnosticated of Bulimia Nervosa in comorbidity with Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity in the Eating Disorders Institute(ITA). The new psychopharmacological treatment was with Methylphenidate, but he had tachycardia, also it suspend, and started Atomoxetine, associated with psychotherapeutic management and family therapy. Now the evolution is excellent(CHIP-AE), and there is absence of substance use over 12 months.
The eating disorders, with impulse control deficits, keep high etiopathogenic relationship with externalizing disorders-ADHD-, and could be effective the same psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological treatment.
Pragmatic language skills were examined in schizophrenia patients compared to IQ-matched control subjects measured by the decoding of the flouting of the four Gricean maxims.
19 schizophrenic patients and 19 matched controls were evaluated. Five experimental conditions (all included four stories) were used, such as „quantity maxim” (QNM) condition, „quality maxim” (QLM) condition, „relevance maxim” (RM) condition, „manner maxim” (MM) condition and "control” (C) condition. An investigator presented the stories and asked for the hidden communicative intentions. PANSS scores and general intelligence were also measured.
Patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse than controls in each of the conditions containig the flouting of the Gricean maxims. The response accuracy in the C condition was not differed significantly between the two groups (QNM:p< 0.001; QLM:p< 0.001; RM:p< 0.001; MM:p< 0.001; C:p=0.487). Significant positive correlations were found between QLM and IQ (p< 0.001) and between RM and IQ (p=0.025), and there was no significant correlatios between PANSS scores and response accuracy. Full scale IQ was not differed significantly between the two groups (p=0.095).
We found that a complex pragmatic language deficit exists in schizophrenia. The impairment do not seem to have a relationship with symptom severity. Besides, it seems, that good intellectual function supports pragmatic language skills in schizophrenia.
Basic symptoms are subjective complaints that present at the early states in psychotic disorders and persist in the long-term. They can be studied using hetero applied clinical instruments or self-administered questionnaires. Basic symptoms can be useful as screening tools in at risk populations.
To determine if basic symptoms (subjective cognitive deficits) are associated with the objectively measured cognitive deficit after controlling for functioning and symptomatology.
One observational, transversal, psychopathological and neuropsychological study was performed on a schizophrenia outpatients sample (n = 78). Correlations were measured by using Spearman's Rho coefficient. Basic symptoms were registered by using the Frankfurt Complaints Questionnaire (FCQ-3); cognitive status was assessed by Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS); clinical status was assessed by PANSS and Clinical Global Impression (CGI); functional status was measured with Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF).
All the dimensions were related to subjective complaints: cognitive functioning (r = −.38; P < .001); positive symptoms (r = .54; P < .001); negative symptoms (r = .26; P < .02); general symptoms (r = .41; P < .001); CGI (r = .57; P < .001); GAF (r = −.45; P < .001). The association between subjective and objective cognitive deficit remains significative after controlling for the clinical and functional variables, except when controlling for CGI.
The evaluation of basic symptoms with FCQ-3 is related with an objective cognitive deficit and could be useful as a screening tool.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Positive symptoms are a useful predictor of aggression in schizophrenia. Although a similar pattern of abnormal brain structures related to both positive symptoms and aggression has been reported, this observation has not yet been confirmed in a single sample.
To study the association between positive symptoms and aggression in schizophrenia on a neurobiological level, a prospective meta-analytic approach was employed to analyze harmonized structural neuroimaging data from 10 research centers worldwide. We analyzed brain MRI scans from 902 individuals with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia and 952 healthy controls.
The result identified a widespread cortical thickness reduction in schizophrenia compared to their controls. Two separate meta-regression analyses revealed that a common pattern of reduced cortical gray matter thickness within the left lateral temporal lobe and right midcingulate cortex was significantly associated with both positive symptoms and aggression.
These findings suggested that positive symptoms such as formal thought disorder and auditory misperception, combined with cognitive impairments reflecting difficulties in deploying an adaptive control toward perceived threats, could escalate the likelihood of aggression in schizophrenia.
The research reported in this Research Communication evaluates the effect of milk acidification on the physicochemical and sensory properties of Licor de Oro (or Gold Liqueur; LO), a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in Chiloé island, Chile, which is made by mixing milk acidified with lemon juice and alcohol at a ratio of 1.0:1.0, along with sugar and other spices. The mixture is stored for a couple of weeks and then filtered to obtain a product with a yellowish-transparent appearance, sweetness and acidic taste, milky and alcoholic notes. The lack of information regarding LO processing, mainly in the amount of acid added to the mixture, leads to products of highly variable quality. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of milk acidification on the physicochemical and sensory properties of LO. Raw milk was acidified using citric acid to six different pH values: 6.7 (control), 6.0, 5.3, 4.6, 3.9 and 3.2. These milk treatments were then used to make LO. A decrease of milk pH led to LO with higher levels of sensorial and titratable acidity. LO obtained at pH 6.7 and 6.0 had higher levels of total protein than other treatments, leading to excessive turbidity. In contrast, treatments made at pH ≤5.3 had a typical transparent appearance of LO. These results suggest that a minimum level of milk acidification is required to obtain LO with desired appearance and composition.
Measuring diet choice in grazing animals is challenging, complicating the assessment of feed efficiency in pasture-based systems. Furthermore, animals may modify their intake of a forage species depending on its nutritive value and on their own physiological status. Various fecal markers have been used to estimate feed intake in grazing animals. However, plant-wax markers such as n-alkanes (ALK) and long-chain alcohols may provide reliable estimates of both dietary choices and intakes. Still, their use in beef cattle has been relatively limited. The present study was designed to test the reliability of the ALK technique to estimate diet choices in beef heifers. Twenty-two Angus-cross heifers were evaluated at both post-weaning and yearling age. At each age, they were offered both red clover and fescue hay as cubes. Following 3-week acclimation periods, daily intake of each forage species was assessed daily for 10 days. During the final 5 days, fecal grab samples were collected twice daily. The ALK fecal concentrations were adjusted using recovery fractions compiled from literature. Diet composition was estimated using two statistical methods. Post-weaning, dietary choices were reliably estimated, with low residual error, regardless of the statistical approach adopted. The regression of observed on estimated red clover proportion ranged from 0.85±0.08 to 1.01±0.09 for fecal samples collected in the p.m. and for daily proportions once averaged, respectively. However, at yearling age, the estimates were less reliable. There was a tendency to overestimate the red clover proportion in diets of heifers preferring fescue, and vice versa. This was due to greater variability in ALK fecal concentrations in the yearling heifers. Overall, the ALK technique provided a reliable tool for estimating diet choice in animals fed a simple forage diet. Although further refinements in the application of this methodology are needed, plant-wax markers provide opportunities for evaluating diet composition in grazing systems in cattle.
The circadian disruption in shift-workers is suggested to be a risk factor to develop overweight and metabolic dysfunction. The conflicting time signals given by shifted activity, shifted food intake and exposure to light at night occurring in the shift-worker are proposed to be the cause for the loss of internal synchrony and the consequent adverse effects on body weight and metabolism. Because food elicited signals have proven to be potent entraining signals for peripheral oscillations, here we review the findings from experimental models of shift-work and verify whether they provide evidence about the causal association between shifted feeding schedules, circadian disruption and altered metabolism. We found mainly four experimental models that mimic the conditions of shift-work: protocols of forced sleep deprivation, of forced activity during the normal rest phase, exposure to light at night and shifted food timing. A big variability in the intensity and duration of the protocols was observed, which led to a diversity of effects. A common result was the disruption of temporal patterns of activity; however, not all studies explored the temporal patterns of food intake. According to studies that evaluate time of food intake as an experimental model of shift-work and studies that evaluate shifted food consumption, time of food intake may be a determining factor for the loss of balance at the circadian and metabolic level.
Methiozolin is an isoxazoline herbicide being investigated for selective POST annual bluegrass control in managed turfgrass. Research was conducted to evaluate methiozolin efficacy for controlling two annual bluegrass phenotypes with target-site resistance to photosystem II (PSII) or enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS)-inhibiting herbicides (i.e., glyphosate), as well as phenotypes with multiple resistance to microtubule and EPSPS or PSII and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides. All resistant phenotypes were established in glasshouse culture along with a known herbicide-susceptible control and treated with methiozolin at 0, 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, or 8000 g ai ha−1. Methiozolin effectively controlled annual bluegrass with target-site resistance to inhibitors of EPSPS, PSII, as well as multiple resistance to EPSPS and microtubule inhibitors. Methiozolin rates required to reduce aboveground biomass of these resistant phenotypes 50% (GR50 values) were not significantly different from the susceptible control, ranging from 159 to 421 g ha−1. A phenotype with target-site resistance to PSII and ALS inhibitors was less sensitive to methiozolin (GR50=862 g ha−1) than a susceptible phenotype (GR50=423 g ha−1). Our findings indicate that methiozolin is an effective option for controlling select annual bluegrass phenotypes with target-site resistance to several herbicides.
Initiation and development of a M 1.0 class flare of June 12, 2014, was observed by space and ground-based telescopes, including EUV and X-ray imaging spectroscopy by IRIS and RHESSI, and high-resolution optical imaging by 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST). Analyzing the NST data, we found small-scale loop-like structures in the region of the magnetic field Polarity Inversion Line (PIL), the emergence and interaction of which caused photospheric brightenings temporarily coinciding with hard X-ray impulses. Detailed studies of the PIL region reveal signatures of photospheric plasma downflows and dissipation of electric currents. The reconstructed magnetic field topology shows a bundle of lines connecting the PIL region with the flare ribbons which were places of chromospheric evaporation observed by IRIS. The observations suggest a scenario with the primary energy release processes located in the low atmospheric layers of the PIL, energizing the overlying large-scale magnetic structure and causing “gentle” chromospheric evaporation.
Small-scale kG strong magnetic field elements in the solar photosphere are often identified as so-called magnetic bright points (MBPs). In principle these MBPs represent the cross-section of a vertical, strong, magnetic flux tube which is expanding with height in the solar atmosphere. As these magnetic elements represent possible MHD wave guides, a significant interest has been already paid to them from the viewpoint of observations and simulations. In this work we would like to shed more light on a possible scenario for the creation of such strong magnetic field concentrations. The accepted standard scenario involves the convective collapse process. In this ongoing work we will show indications that this convective collapse process may become triggered by sufficiently strong pressure disturbances. However, it is highly unlikely that p-mode waves can be of such a strength.
Sunspots are of basic interest in the study of the Sun. Their relevance ranges from them being an activity indicator of magnetic fields to being the place where coronal mass ejections and flares erupt. They are therefore also an important ingredient of space weather. Their formation, however, is still an unresolved problem in solar physics. Observations utilize just 2D surface information near the spot, but it is debatable how to infer deep structures and properties from local helioseismology. For a long time, it was believed that flux tubes rising from the bottom of the convection zone are the origin of the bipolar sunspot structure seen on the solar surface. However, this theory has been challenged, in particular recently by new surface observation, helioseismic inversions, and numerical models of convective dynamos. In this article we discuss another theoretical approach to the formation of sunspots: the negative effective magnetic pressure instability. This is a large-scale instability, in which the total (kinetic plus magnetic) turbulent pressure can be suppressed in the presence of a weak large-scale magnetic field, leading to a converging downflow, which eventually concentrates the magnetic field within it. Numerical simulations of forced stratified turbulence have been able to produce strong super-equipartition flux concentrations, similar to sunspots at the solar surface. In this framework, sunspots would only form close to the surface due to the instability constraints on stratification and rotation. Additionally, we present some ideas from local helioseismology, where we plan to use the Hankel analysis to study the pre-emergence phase of a sunspot and to constrain its deep structure and formation mechanism.
A new generation of solar instruments provides improved spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution, thus facilitating a better understanding of dynamic processes on the Sun. High-resolution observations often reveal multiple-component spectral line profiles, e.g., in the near-infrared He i 10830 Å triplet, which provides information about the chromospheric velocity and magnetic fine structure. We observed an emerging flux region, including two small pores and an arch filament system, on 2015 April 17 with the ‘very fast spectroscopic mode’ of the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS) situated at the 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. We discuss this method of obtaining fast (one per minute) spectral scans of the solar surface and its potential to follow dynamic processes on the Sun. We demonstrate the performance of the ‘very fast spectroscopic mode’ by tracking chromospheric high-velocity features in the arch filament system.
We develop the energy budget equation of the coupled Navier–Stokes–Cahn–Hilliard (NSCH) system. We use the NSCH equations to model the dynamics of liquid droplets in a liquid continuum. Buoyancy effects are accounted for through the Boussinesq assumption. We physically interpret each quantity involved in the energy exchange to gain further insight into the model. Highly resolved simulations involving density-driven flows and the merging of droplets allow us to analyse these energy budgets. In particular, we focus on the energy exchanges when droplets merge, and describe flow features relevant to this phenomenon. By comparing our numerical simulations to analytical predictions and experimental results available in the literature, we conclude that modelling droplet dynamics within the framework of NSCH equations is a sensible approach worthy of further research.