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Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas (GHG) produced and released by eructation to the atmosphere in large volumes by ruminants. Enteric CH4 contributes significantly to global GHG emissions arising from animal agriculture. It has been contended that tropical grasses produce higher emissions of enteric CH4 than temperate grasses, when they are fed to ruminants. A number of experiments have been performed in respiration chambers and head-boxes to assess the enteric CH4 mitigation potential of foliage and pods of tropical plants, as well as nitrates (NO3−) and vegetable oils in practical rations for cattle. On the basis of individual determinations of enteric CH4 carried out in respiration chambers, the average CH4 yield for cattle fed low-quality tropical grasses (>70% ration DM) was 17.0 g CH4/kg DM intake. Results showed that when foliage and ground pods of tropical trees and shrubs were incorporated in cattle rations, methane yield (g CH4/kg DM intake) was decreased by 10% to 25%, depending on plant species and level of intake of the ration. Incorporation of nitrates and vegetable oils in the ration decreased enteric CH4 yield by ∼6% to ∼20%, respectively. Condensed tannins, saponins and starch contained in foliages, pods and seeds of tropical trees and shrubs, as well as nitrates and vegetable oils, can be fed to cattle to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions under smallholder conditions. Strategies for enteric CH4 mitigation in cattle grazing low-quality tropical forages can effectively increase productivity while decreasing enteric CH4 emissions in absolute terms and per unit of product (e.g. meat, milk), thus reducing the contribution of ruminants to GHG emissions and therefore to climate change.
Cocaine dependence disorder has been widely described. However, differences due to gender remain unknown.
To compare clinical gender differences in a large sample of cocaine-dependent patients.
We performed a cross-sectional, observational study in 902 patients (35.47 yo, 21.3% women) with a cocaine dependence according DSM-IV criteria, seeking treatment during 2005 to 2013. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected The SCID-I, SCID–II, BIS and a structured interview about cocaine-induced psychosis were performed. Simple descriptive statistics were carried out for demographic and clinical data. Bivariate analysis was made to compare the main variables by sex using SPSSvs18.0.
No differences in age of dependence onset, other clinical variables or cocaine-induced psychosis were detected. However, less cocaine used in the last month (2.12 vs 3.37g) (p < 0.009), more impulsivity (67.2 vs 63.03) (p < 0.040), and more sedative dependence (21.2% % vs 8.3%)(p< 0.00) were detected in women than in men. Affective disorders lifetime were the most prevalent (57,4%) in women. More comorbidity with anxiety disorders (p< 0.025) eating disorders (p< 0.000) and personality disorders (p< 0.039) were detected in women than in men.
Sedative dependence and anxiety disorders should be investigated in cocaine-dependent women in order to treat these conditions. Surprisingly high impulsivity level was detected and could moderate cocaine consumption. However, no difference have been found previously in studies about gender differences in cocaine-dependent patients, so this finding should be confirm in new studies.
Several studies have stated the possitive effects of physical exercise over mental health, mainly in clinical samples. However, the results of these experimental estudies might not be generalized to general population. Some authors propose that physical activity could be not really promoting a psychological benefit but, instead, be a consequence of some personal or circumstantial features that would be acting as confusion factors. Personality, as it involves a steady pattern of behaviors, is theorized to arise as one of these factors.
Our objective was to assess the relationship between personality features and voluntary physical activity in a medical resident sample from Hospital 12 de Octubre (Madrid).
High levels of voluntary physical activity will be associated to high scores on extraversion and conscientiousness dimensions after assessing personality.
The project has been conducted as a transversal descriptive study. Sample: 80 first-year medical residents, ages 23 to 40, and no story of mental disorder, nor chronic disabilities. Main variables: voluntary physical activity measured through International Physical Activity Questionary (IPAQ) and personality features assessed through Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) as proposed from the 5 factors model (neuroticism, extraversion, openess, agreeableness and conscientiouness).
Frequency measures have been used to describe qualitative variables. Arithmetic mean and standard deviation were used to describe quantitative variables. Pearson's correlation was used in order to study the relationship between scores on physical activity and personality factors.
We present preliminary results from first stage of the study, as well implications are discused.
Psychomotor agitation is the most common behavioural disorder observed in emergency and psychiatry departments. This syndrome is characterized by excessive or inappropriate motor or verbal activity and important emotional tension. Psychomotor agitation may be associated with medical conditions, substance intoxication/withdrawal and in a significant number of cases with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder.
The objective of this protocol was to provide up-to-date guidance to identify, manage and treat patients with an episode of acute agitation, considering the consensus clinical knowledge, current ethical standards and available therapies. This protocol is aimed to be a patient-centric tool helping to anticipate and prevent the escalation of agitation symptoms.
The method followed to elaborate this document was through a combination of comprehensive bibliographical review (complied in the article “Assessment and management of agitation in psychiatry: expert consensus” by Garriga M. et al. (World J Biol Psychiatry, 2016), interaction with patients, and the clinical experience in our centre.
The elaboration of this protocol resulted in a document that contains guidelines to identify, manage and treat patients efficiently, ethically and safely. One of the novelties of the protocol is the addition of dichotomies based on the patients’ willingness to cooperate. The information is summarized in easy-to-use algorithms for non-specialized healthcare professionals.
This protocol may provide the basis of a new standardized treatment paradigm for psychomotor agitation which may help improve the patient's experience and therapeutic alliance with the healthcare professional and optimize resources in healthcare centres.
Disclosure of interest
COI: The preparation of the protocol was funded by an unrestricted grant from Ferrer International. The company had no say on protocol content. Dr Vieta has received funding for research projects and/or honoraria as a consultant or speaker for from the following companies and institutions: AB-Biotics, Allergan, AstraZeneca, Bial, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Elan, Eli Lilly, Farmaindustria, Ferrer, Forest Research Institute, Gedeon Richter, Glaxo-Smith-Kline, Janssen, Lundbeck, Otsuka, Pfizer, Roche, Sanofi-Aventis, Servier, Shire, Solvay, Sunovion, Takeda, Telefónica, Institute of Health Carlos III [Instituto de Salud Carlos III], Séptimo Programa Marco (ENBREC), Brain and Behaviour Foundation (NARSAD) and Stanley Medical Research Institute.
Comorbidity between alcoholism and depression has long been acknowledged, and the possibility that similar brain mechanisms, involving both serotonergic (5-HT) and noradrenergic systems (NE), underlie both pathologies has been suggested. Thus, inhibitors of NE and 5HT uptake have been proposed for the treatment of alcoholism, as they have shown to reduce alcohol intake in various animal models. However, most of the studies mentioned were carried out acutely and there is a lack of knowledge of the possible long-term effects. Clinical studies report an overall low efficacy of antidepressant treatment on alcohol consumption, or even a worsened prognosis. In addition, several cases of alcohol dependence following antidepressant treatment have been reported in the literature.
We aimed at comparing the acute and chronic effects of the treatment with the antidepressant drug reboxetine on alcohol consumption.
We used a rat model of alcohol self-administration, and two different schedules of reboxetine administration (acute and chronic).
Our results confirm the acute suppressant effects of reboxetine on alcohol consumption but indicate that, when this drug is administered chronically in a period of abstinence from alcohol, it can significantly increase the rate of alcohol self-administration.
These results are important for the understanding of the clinical reports describing cases of increased alcohol consumption after antidepressant treatment, and suggest that much more research is needed to fully understand the long term effects of antidepressants, which remain the most widely prescribed class of drugs.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Parasomnias are a category of sleep disorders in which abnormal events occur during sleep, due to inappropriately timed activation of physiological systems.
we report the case of a 41-year-old female who has no psychiatric history. The patient went to emergency department because when she was starting to sleep, in the first state of sleep, she felts a sensation of paralysis in all her body, with incapacity for breathing, chest oppression and tactile hallucinations like something or someone was touching her entire body. Due to that, the patient awoke frightened, with high levels of anxiety, with heart palpitations, shortness of breath, trembling, choking feeling, sweating, nausea and fear of dying. When the patient arrived to the emergency department, she was suffering a panic attack, thinking that she could have some kind of neurological disease or she was suffering a heart attack. after treating the panic attack with 1 mg of lorazepam, all the symptoms subsided gradually.
in this case report, we present a patient with a new-onset parasomnia, with hypnagogic hallucinations and a panic attack at the awakening. It is known that stress factors are closely associated with parasomnias, as we can see in this case because the patient was moving and she was sleeping in a new place.
Parasomnias are very frequently present in general population and they can trigger intense anxiety status that can lead to panic attacks.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Tourists approaching wild animals can potentially cause disturbance as a result of the perceived predation risk. Risk effects arise when prey alter their behaviour in response to predators. This response may carry costs through its impact on fitness-related activities such as foraging. We recorded behavioural responses of whale sharks Rhincodon typus to experimental vessel and swimmer approaches. We simulated the disturbance caused by ecotourism in the foraging site of this planktivorous fish in Bahia de Los Angeles, Gulf of Baja California, Mexico. Stress-related behaviours (vigilance, change of direction, diving and acceleration) were more common directly after both types of disturbance than before, in particular after approach by a swimmer. Individuals were more likely to be vigilant when they were new to the bay, but we did not find evidence of within-season behavioural habituation. Sharks were 24% more likely to forage before human stimuli than after. Our study highlights negative effects of vessel and swimmer approaches on whale shark behaviour, with a short-term increase in stress-related behaviours potentially carrying energetic costs, combined with a decrease in food intake following the disturbance. Our results indicate concerns about the impact of ecotourism on large fish species. An important next step would be to determine whether these short-term behavioural responses to the perception of predation risk negatively affect fitness. Among other guidelines, we recommend preventing swimmers from approaching if whale sharks stop feeding when a vessel approaches.
This paper presents a fully-integrated direct-conversion fundamentally-operated mixer-first quadrature receiver module with a tunable LO in the 219–266 GHz band. It has been implemented in a 0.13-μm SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor technology. It includes an on-chip LO path driven externally from the printed circuit board (PCB) connector level at 13.6–16.7 GHz. A hybrid coupler generates the quadrature LO signal, which drives a pair of double-balanced fundamentally-operated down-conversion mixers, whose RF ports are connected to a wideband lens-integrated on-chip ring antenna. The chip-on-lens assembly is placed in the recess of a high-speed PCB and wire-bonded. To compensate the inductive behavior of the wire-bond interconnection between the chip and the PCB at the high-speed IF outputs, an on-board 8-section step-impedance low-pass filter has been implemented. The module shows a 47 GHz 3-dB radio frequency/local oscillator operation bandwidth (BW), a peak conversion gain of 7.8 dB, a single-side-band noise figure of 11.3 dB, and a 3-dB IF BW of 13 GHz. The in-phase and quadrature amplitude imbalance stays below 1.58 dB for the 210–280 GHz band. The down-conversion and the baseband stages consume together 75.5 mW, while the LO path 378 mW. The maximum data-rate achieved with this receiver in combination with the transmitter presented in [1–3] is 60 Gbps for quadrature phase shift keying modulation.
While there are effective treatments for psychiatric disorders, many individuals with such disorders do not receive treatment and those that do often take years to get into treatment. Information regarding treatment contact failure and delay in Argentina is needed to guide public health policy and planning. Therefore, this study aimed to provide data on prompt treatment contact, lifetime treatment contact, median duration of treatment delays and socio-demographic predictors of treatment contact after the first onset of a mental disorder.
The Argentinean Study of Mental Health Epidemiology (EAESM) is a multistage probability sample representative of adults (aged 18+) living in large urban areas of Argentina. A total of 2116 participants were evaluated with the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess psychiatric diagnosis, treatment contact and delay.
Projections of cases that will make treatment contact by 50 years taken from a survival curve suggest that the majority of individuals with a mood (100%) or anxiety disorder (72.5%) in Argentina whose disorder persist for a sufficient period of time eventually make treatment contact while fewer with a substance disorder do so (41.6%). Timely treatment in the year of onset is rare (2.6% for a substance disorder, 14.6% for an anxiety disorder and 31.3% of those with a mood disorder) with mean delays between 8 years for mood disorders and 21 years for anxiety disorders. Younger cohorts are more likely to make treatment contact than older cohorts, whereas those with earlier ages of disorder onset are least likely to make treatment contact. Those with anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder are more likely to make treatment contact when they have comorbid disorders, whereas those with substance use disorders are less likely.
Argentina needs to implement strategies to get individuals with substance use disorders into treatment, and to reduce treatment delays for all, but particularly to target early detection and treatment among children and adolescents.
This study assessed milk productivity, demographic characteristics and workload distribution on a single high-yield dairy ewe farm in Spain (Avila, Spain; continental climate, latitude of 40.90 N, altitude of 900 m) over a 7-year period considering a transition from a herd management system involving five lambings per year (5LY) to a system involving 10 lambings per year (10LY). The 5LY system was practiced on the farm from 2010 to 2012 and the 10LY system from 2014 to 2015, with 2009 and 2013 being considered transition years. During this period, 27 415 lactations were recorded from an average of 3746 Lacaune sheep/year. Several productivity parameters were higher in 2014 to 2015 than in 2010 to 2012: milk yield/lactation (370±156 v. 349±185 l), lactation length (218±75 v. 192±75 days) and dry period length (53.5±38.3 v. 69.1±34.8 days) (all P<0.0001). During 2014 to 2015, investment in new lambing facilities was possible, workload was distributed more uniformly throughout the year, workload per worker was smaller, rate of ewe culling was lower (35.39±0.53% v. 42.51±7.51%), ewe longevity was greater and higher-order lactations were more numerous (P<0.0001). On the other hand, during 2010 to 2012, daily production was higher (1.73±1.66 v. 1.70±0.62 l/day; P=0.038), the interlambing period was shorter (283±50 v. 302±44 days; P<0.0001) and lambings/ewe per year were greater (1.42±0.01 v. 1.30±0.01; P<0.05). These results suggest that a 10LY herd management system can be compatible with profitability, productivity and good animal and worker’s welfare on a high-yield dairy farm, and may even be associated with better outcomes than a 5LY system.
This is the first study performed to determine the health status of the geoduck Panopea abbreviata in the San José and San Matías Gulfs (North Patagonia, Argentina). The study was based on 120 geoducks collected (30 specimens in each season) at Fracasso Beach (42°25′S 64°07′W) (San José Gulf) and 30 specimens collected during the austral summer at Puerto Lobos (42°00′S 65°05′W) (San Matías Gulf). The parasites found (prevalence in parentheses) were: prokaryotic inclusions (32.2%) were recorded in the epithelium of the digestive gland and gill filaments; ciliates (79%) mainly found in gills; Porospora-like gregarines (15.2%) in the connective tissue between inner and outer mantle epitheliums; the turbellarian Paravortex panopea (27.1%) in the intestine lumen; the nemertean Malacobdella arrokeana (98.3%) in the pallial cavity; and the green alga Coccomyxa parasitica (51%) parasitizing the haemocytes in the connective tissue of the distal end of the siphon. The highest mean parasitic abundance value was found in the late austral spring (November), coinciding with the lowest values of the condition index of the host. The populations of P. abbreviata from San José Gulf seemed to be devoid of severe pathogens.
The role of magnetic field in late type stars such as proto-planetary and planetary nebulae (PPNe/PNe), is poorly known from an observational point of view. We present submillimetric observations realized with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) which unveil the dust continuum polarization in the envelopes of two well known PPNe: CRL 618 and OH 231.8+4.2. Assuming the current grain alignment theory, we were then able to trace the geometry of the magnetic field.
Density functional theory and molecular dynamics were used to study the generation of hydrogen peroxide around a nickel atom anchored on a pyridine-like nitrogen-doped graphene (PNG) layer. First, we found that two hydrogen molecules are adsorbed around the nickel atom, with adsorption energy 0.95 eV/molecule. Then we studied the interaction of oxygen molecules with this system at atmospheric pressure and 300 K. It is found that two hydrogen peroxide molecules are formed. However, at 700 K, one hydrogen peroxide molecule, and one water molecule are desorbed. One oxygen atom stays bound to the nickel atom.
In this research we studied the fracture of a cast iron drum for 3.5 ton trucks, and it seeks to determine the causes that led to a series of cracks in different areas of the part of drum brake during the manufacturing process, casting or machining. The work followed the methodology usually used in failure analysis; we used the following analytical techniques: visual inspection, penetrating liquids, fractography, metallography, chemical analysis and mechanical testing of hardness. The analysis of the automotive part surface is divided into four sections which are the flange, track, belt and covers powders which were evaluated by the above techniques to determine the failure of the piece. Metallography analysis in each section of the piece showed different microstructure on gray cast iron; showing that pieces works with different cooling conditions during manufacture, giving a mechanism of failure-prone fragile.
The thickness of the cortical mantle is a sensitive measure for identifying alterations in cortical structure. We aimed to explore whether first episode schizophrenia patients already show a significant cortical thinning and whether cortical thickness anomalies may significantly influence clinical and cognitive features.
We investigated regional changes in cortical thickness in a large and heterogeneous sample of schizophrenia spectrum patients (n=142) at their first break of the illness and healthy controls (n=83). Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans (1.5 T) were obtained and images were analyzed by using brains2. The contribution of sociodemographic, cognitive and clinical characterictics was investigated.
Patients showed a significant total cortical thinning (F=17.55, d=−0.62, p<0.001) and there was a diffuse pattern of reduced thickness (encompassing frontal, temporal and parietal cortices) (all p's<0.001, d's>0.53). No significant group×gender interactions were observed (all p's>0.15). There were no significant associations between the clinical and pre-morbid variables and cortical thickness measurements (all r's<0.12). A weak significant negative correlation between attention and total (r=−0.24, p=0.021) and parietal cortical thickness (r=−0.27, p=0.009) was found in patients (thicker cortex was associated with lower attention). Our data revealed a similar pattern of cortical thickness changes related to age in patients and controls.
Cortical thinning is independent of gender, age, age of onset and duration of the illness and does not seem to significantly influence clinical and functional symptomatology. These findings support a primary neurodevelopment disorder affecting the normal cerebral cortex development in schizophrenia.
Disodium ascorbyl phytostanol phosphate (FM-VP4) is a synthetic compound derived from sitostanol and campestanol that has proved to be efficient as a cholesterol-lowering therapy in mice and human subjects. However, the mechanism of action of FM-VP4 remains unknown. The present study tests the ability of FM-VP4 to alter intestinal and liver cholesterol homeostasis in mice. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control chow or a 2 % FM-VP4-enriched diet for 4 weeks. FM-VP4 reduced the in vivo net intestinal cholesterol absorption and plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations by 2·2-, 1·5- and 1·6-fold, respectively, compared with control mice. Furthermore, FM-VP4 also showed an impact on bile acid homeostasis. In FM-VP4 mice, liver and intestinal bile acid content was increased by 1·3- and 2·3-fold, respectively, whereas faecal bile acid output was 3·3-fold lower. FM-VP4 also increased the intestinal absorption of orally administered [3H]taurocholic acid to small intestine in vivo. Inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption by FM-VP4 was not mediated via transcriptional increases in intestine liver X receptor (LXR)-α, adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter (ABC)-A1, ABCG5/G8 nor to decreases in intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) expression. In contrast, FM-VP4 up-regulated liver LXRα, ABCA1, ABCG5, scavenger receptor class BI (SR-BI) and hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoA-R) gene expression, whereas it down-regulated several farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-target genes such as cytochrome P450 family 7 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (CYP7A1) and Na+/taurocholate co-transporter polypeptide (NTCP). In conclusion, FM-VP4 reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption, plasma and liver cholesterol and affected bile acid homeostasis by inducing bile acid intestinal reabsorption and changed the liver expression of genes that play an essential role in cholesterol homeostasis. This is the first phytosterol or stanol that affects bile acid metabolism and lowers plasma cholesterol levels in normocholesterolaemic mice.
Several important errors and misinterpretations present in a recent publication by Khan et al. [Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 11002 (2009)] are pointed out and discussed. In particular, it is shown that the method used to calculate the rate coefficients for the electron impact excitation of 3p54p and 3p55p states of argon is incorrect and leads to unrealistically high rate coefficients.