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There are few longitudinal studies about South Asians (SAs) and little information about recruitment and retention approaches for this ethnic group.
We followed 906 SAs enrolled in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) cohort for 5 years. Surviving participants were invited for a second clinical exam from 2015 to 2018. A new wave of participants was recruited during 2017–2018. We assessed the yields from different methods of recruitment and retention.
A total of 759 (83%) completed the second clinical exam, and 258 new participants were enrolled. Providing a nearby community hospital location for the study exam, offering cab/shared ride reimbursement, and conducting home visits were the most effective methods for enhancing retention. New participant recruitment targeted women and individuals with lower socioeconomic status, and we found that participant referrals and active community engagement were most effective. Mailing invitational letters to those identified by electronic health records had very low yield.
Recruitment and retention strategies that address transportation barriers and increase community engagement will help increase the representation of SAs in health research.
Using HINODE/XRT, GOES, SDO/AIA observations, we study a compact C-1.4 class flare outside a major sunspot of AR 12178 on 4 October 2014. This flare is associated with a peculiar coronal jet, which is erupted in two stages in the overlying corona above the compact flaring region. At the time of flare maximum, the first stage of the jet eruption occurs above the flare energy release site, and thereafter in the second stage its magneto-plasma system interacts with the overlying distinct magnetic field domain in its vicinity to build further the typical jet plasma column.
An internationally approved and globally used classification scheme for the diagnosis of CHD has long been sought. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC), which was produced and has been maintained by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (the International Nomenclature Society), is used widely, but has spawned many “short list” versions that differ in content depending on the user. Thus, efforts to have a uniform identification of patients with CHD using a single up-to-date and coordinated nomenclature system continue to be thwarted, even if a common nomenclature has been used as a basis for composing various “short lists”. In an attempt to solve this problem, the International Nomenclature Society has linked its efforts with those of the World Health Organization to obtain a globally accepted nomenclature tree for CHD within the 11th iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The International Nomenclature Society has submitted a hierarchical nomenclature tree for CHD to the World Health Organization that is expected to serve increasingly as the “short list” for all communities interested in coding for congenital cardiology. This article reviews the history of the International Classification of Diseases and of the IPCCC, and outlines the process used in developing the ICD-11 congenital cardiac disease diagnostic list and the definitions for each term on the list. An overview of the content of the congenital heart anomaly section of the Foundation Component of ICD-11, published herein in its entirety, is also included. Future plans for the International Nomenclature Society include linking again with the World Health Organization to tackle procedural nomenclature as it relates to cardiac malformations. By doing so, the Society will continue its role in standardising nomenclature for CHD across the globe, thereby promoting research and better outcomes for fetuses, children, and adults with congenital heart anomalies.
The present study investigates the joining of 5-mm-thick plates of superaustenitic stainless steel, AISI 904L by continuous current (CC) and pulsed current (PC) gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) using ER2553 and ERNiCrMo-4 fillers. This research article attempts to provide a detailed structure–property relationship of these weldments. Interface microstructure revealed the absence of deleterious secondary phases at the heat affected zone in all the cases. Skeletal delta ferrite morphology at the cap of ER2553 fusion zone and multidirectional grain growth at the ERNiCrMo-4 fusion zone were observed for both the weldments. The average hardness at the fusion zone was found to be higher for PCGTA weldments using ER2553 due to the higher proportions of ferrite. Tensile studies corroborated that the failure occurred at the parent metal in all the cases. Charpy V-notch studies divulged that the CCGTA and PCGTA weldments utilizing ERNiCrMo-4 filler exhibited the greater impact toughness of 69 J and 75 J, respectively. The bend test results conveyed that both the CCGTA and PCGTA weldments using ERNiCrMo-4 exhibited soundness and ductility.
The objective of this study was to develop emission factors (EF) for methane (CH4) emissions from enteric fermentation in cattle native to Benin. Information on livestock characteristics and diet practices specific to the Benin cattle population were gathered from a variety of sources and used to estimate EF according to Tier 2 methodology of the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Most cattle from Benin are Bos taurus represented by Borgou, Somba and Lagune breeds. They are mainly multi-purpose, being used for production of meat, milk, hides and draft power and grazed in open pastures and crop lands comprising tropical forages and crops. Estimated enteric CH4 EFs varied among cattle breeds and subcategory owing to differences in proportions of gross energy intake expended to meet maintenance, production and activity. EFs ranged from 15.0 to 43.6, 16.9 to 46.3 and 24.7 to 64.9 kg CH4/head per year for subcategories of Lagune, Somba and Borgou cattle, respectively. Average EFs for cattle breeds were 24.8, 29.5 and 40.2 kg CH4/head per year for Lagune, Somba and Borgou cattle, respectively. The national EF for cattle from Benin was 39.5 kg CH4/head per year. This estimated EF was 27.4% higher than the default EF suggested by IPCC for African cattle with the exception of dairy cattle. The outcome of the study underscores the importance of obtaining country-specific EF to estimate global enteric CH4 emissions.
A total of 34 tomato genotypes (24 F1+10 parents) were tested for resistance to tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) disease by various whitefly inoculation techniques under field and insect-proof glasshouse (mass and cage) conditions. Of the ten tomato parental lines, two accessions [EC-520061 (Solanum habrochaites) and EC-521080 (Solanum pimpinellifolium)] were identified as highly resistant while four accessions (EC-520049, EC-528372, WIR-5032 and WIR-3957) of wild species were resistant to ToLCV. Out of the 24 F1 crosses, PBC×EC-520061, H-86×EC-520061, H-24×EC-520061 and DVRT-2×EC-520061 were found to be highly resistant against ToLCV disease. Biochemical (total phenol and total sugar concentration) and physiological (chlorophyll content and leaf area index) parameters were also used in healthy and disease-inoculated leaves of ten parents and six F1 hybrids to test the conformity of ToLCV-resistant and susceptible disease reactions. The results showed that among the 16 genotypes (10 parents+6 F1), EC-520061, EC-520049, PBC×EC-520061 and H-86×EC-520061 were stable for both biochemical and physiological markers while EC-521080 showed higher accumulations of total phenol and sugar concentrations and reduced leaf size between healthy and disease-inoculated leaves. The present study demonstrates the importance of the whitefly inoculation technique and biochemical and physiological markers in virus resistance screening programmes, and identifies a potential source of resistance to the ToLCV in Solanum species.
The atomic and electronic structures of multilayer graphene on a monolayer boron nitride (MLBN) have been investigated by using the pseudopotential method and the local density approximation (LDA) of the density functional theory (DFT). We show that the LDA energy band gap can be tuned in the range 41-278 meV for a multilayer graphene by using MLBN as a substrate. The dispersion of the π/π* bands slightly away from the K point is linear with the electron speed of 0.9×106 and 0.93×106 for graphene (MLG)/MLBN and ABA trilayer graphene (TLG)/MLBN systems, respectively. This behaviour becomes quadratic with a relative effective mass of 0.0021 for the bilayer graphene (BLG)/MLBN system. The calculated binding energies are in the range of 10-43 meV per C atom.
We analyze a prominence-like cool plasma structure as observed by Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We perform the Differential Emission Measure (DEM) analysis using various filters of AIA, and also deduce the temperature and density structure in and around the observed flux-tube. In addition to deducing plasma parameters, we also find an evidence of multiple harmonics of fast magnetoacoustic kink waves in the observed prominence-like magnetic structure. Making use of estimated plasma parameters and observed wave parameters, under the baseline of MHD seismology, we deduce magnetic field in the flux-tube. The wave period ratio P1/P2 = 2.18 is also observed in the flux-tube, which carries the signature of magnetic field divergence where we estimate the tube expansion factor as 1.27. We discuss constraints in the estimation of plasma and magnetic field properties in such a structure in the current observational perspective, which may shed new light on the localized plasma dynamics and heating scenario in the solar atmosphere.
Central to the idea of metamaterials is the concept of dynamic homogenization which seeks to define frequency dependent effective properties for Bloch wave propagation. Recent advances in the theory of dynamic homogenization have established the coupled form of the constitutive relation (Willis constitutive relation). This coupled form of the constitutive relation naturally emerges from ensemble averaging of the dynamic fields and automatically satisfies the dispersion relation in the case of periodic composites. Its importance is also notable due to its invariance under transformational acoustics. Here we discuss the explicit form of the effective dynamic constitutive equations. We elaborate upon the existence and emergence of coupling in the dynamic constitutive relation and further symmetries of the effective tensors.
Botrytis grey mould (BGM), caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr., is an important disease of chickpea causing economic losses across the world in chickpea-growing regions. There are no available resistance sources in cultivated chickpea against this disease. Cicer echinospermum and C. reticulatum, the only two compatible annual wild species, have been reported to have resistance to BGM. Hence, interspecific populations were developed with susceptible cultivars as female parents and C. echinospermum accession IG 73 074 and C. reticulatum accession IG 72 937 as the pollen donors to transfer and assess the nature of genetic control for BGM. Screening the progeny indicated that resistance to BGM was controlled by a single additive gene/allele (bgmr1cr and bgmr1ce), which can be introgressed through a backcross breeding programme.
Innovation and technological change are integral to the energy system transformations described in the Global Energy Assessment (GEA) pathways. Energy technology innovations range from incremental improvements to radical breakthroughs and from technologies and infrastructure to social institutions and individual behaviors. This Executive Summary synthesizes the main policy-relevant findings of Chapter 24. Specific positive policy examples or key takehome messages are highlighted in italics.
The innovation process involves many stages – from research through to incubation, demonstration, (niche) market creation, and ultimately, widespread diffusion. Feedbacks between these stages influence progress and likely success, yet innovation outcomes are unavoidably uncertain. Innovations do not happen in isolation; interdependence and complexity are the rule under an increasingly globalized innovation system. Any emphasis on particular technologies or parts of the energy system, or technology policy that emphasizes only particular innovation stages or processes (e.g., an exclusive focus on energy supply from renewables, or an exclusive focus on Research and Development [R&D], or feed-in tariffs) is inadequate given the magnitude and multitude of challenges represented by the GEA objectives.
A first, even if incomplete, assessment of the entire global resource mobilization (investments) in both energy supply and demand-side technologies and across different innovation stages suggests current annual Research, Development & Demonstration (RD&D) investments of some US$50 billion, market formation investments (which rely on directed public policy support) of some US$150 billion, and an estimated US$1 trillion to US$5 trillion investments in mature energy supply and end-use technologies (technology diffusion).
In this paper, we shall be concerned with an investigation of the solution of triple integral equations involving sine and cosine kernels. These type of equations arise in the study of certain two-dimensional mixed boundary value problems in infinite planes and infinitely long strips.
Indium clustering in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) is believed to be responsible for the high luminescent efficiency of GaN based light emitting diodes. In this paper we show that substantial clustering can be induced by reducing to zero the interruption time between growth of the GaN barrier layer on the InGaN quantum well. Photoluminescence (PL) shows that this has the effect of increasing the luminescence intensity and decreasing the band gap energy (higher indium concentration). The clusters or quantum dots were examined and quantified by energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), which was used to form chemical distribution maps of indium, gallium and nitrogen. In this paper we will show that this technique can accurately calculate the indium concentration and distribution in the quantum wells. The calculations show that InxGa1−xN quantum dots (width = 1.3nm) exhibit an In concentration of up to x = 0.5, which are embedded in a quantum well matrix with x = 0.05.
Photoluminescence (PL) studies were carried out on a-Se and a few Ge20Se80−xBix and Ge20Se70−xBixTe10 bulk glassy semiconductors at 4.2 K with Ar+ laser as excitation source. While a-Se and samples with lesser at% of Bi show fine structured PL with a large Stokes shift, samples with higher at% of Bi did not show any detectable PL. The investigations show at least three radiative recombination transitions. Features extracted by deconvoluting the experimental spectra show that the discrete gap levels associated with the inherent coordination defects are involved in the PL transitions. Absence of PL in samples with higher Bi at% are explained on the basis of nonradiative transition mechanisms. Overall PL mechanism involving gap levels in chalcogenide glasses is illustrated with the help of a configurational coordinate diagram.
Unusually large transverse magnetic component has been observed at energy corresponding to the edge of heavy hole band in the optical emission from unstrained and strained layer single quantum well lasers above threshold condition. The existing model of Fermi sea shake-up is inadequate to explain the enhancement in the TM component beyond lasing threshold. Our results indicate that under lasing conditions the directional properties of the emitting dipole arising from electronic transitions to the heavy hole band is modified such that the dipole moment has equal projections in x, y and z directions.
In this paper we report the first NMOSFETs with elevated S/D selectively deposited by ultra high vacuum rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (UHV-RTCVD). The deposition process included an in-situ vacuum prebake (750 °C for 10 sec) followed by selective epitaxial growth (SEG) at 800 °C. Si2H6 was used as the silicon gas source instead of the more commonly used SiH4 and SiH2Cl2 in order to achieve high growth rates at low pressure. To prevent nucleation from occurring on insulator surfaces during growth, an etching mechanism was introduced by the addition of Cl2. The gases included 100 sccm of 10% Si2H6 in H2 and 2 sccm of Cl2 at a process pressure of 24 mTorr. An epitaxial growth rate of 160 nm/min has been achieved. The final epi thickness was around 0.1 μm. The S/D junctions were formed via ion implantation into the epi. The subsequent RTA (10 sec at 950 °C) resulted in an effective junction depth about 75 nm beneath the starting Si substrate. Process and device simulations reveal the importance of maintaining a shallow LDD junction for deep submicron devices by using low temperature selective deposition. MOSFETs exhibit good subthreshold characteristics with subthreshold swing of 86 mV/dec at a drain bias of 2.5 V, and threshold variations due to charge sharing and drain-induced-barrierlowering (DIBL) were moderate for Leff down to 0.35 μm. The gate-induced junction leakage current is below 2 pA/μm at a bias of 2.5 V.
The quality and composition of ultra-thin 2.0 nm gate dielectrics advocated for the 0.1 μm technology regime is expected to significantly impact gate tunneling currents, P+-gate dopant depletion effects and boron penetration into the substrate in PMOSFETs. This paper presents a comparative assessment of alternative grown and deposited gate dielectrics in sub-micron fabricated devices. High quality rapid-thermal CVD oxides and oxynitrides are examined as alternatives to conventional furnace grown gate oxides. An alternative gate process using in-situ boron doped and RTCVD deposited poly-Si is explored. PMOSFETs with Leff down to 0.06 μm were fabricated using a 0.1 μm technology. Electrical characterization of fabricated devices revealed excellent control of gate-boron depletion with the in-situ gate deposition process in all devices. Boron penetration of 2.0 nm gate oxides was effectively controlled by the use of a lower temperature RTA process. The direct tunneling leakage, although significant at these thicknesses, was less than 1 mA/cm2 at Vd = −1.2 V for all dielectrics. MOSFETs with comparable drive currents and excellent junction and off-state leakages were obtained with each dielectric.
The extremely high scintillation efficiency of lutetium iodide doped by cerium is explained as a result of several factors controlling the energy transfer from the host matrix to activator, two of which are investigated in the present paper. The first one is the increase of the efficiency of energy transfer from self-trapped excitons to cerium ions in the row LuCl3-LuBr3-LuI3. The STE structure and the efficiency of STE to cerium energy transfer are verified by cluster ab initio calculations. We propose and theoretically validate the possibility of a new channel of energy transfer to excitons and directly to cerium, namely the Auger process when Lu 4f hole relaxes to the valence band hole with simultaneous creation of additional exciton or excitation of cerium. This process should be efficient in LuI3, and inefficient in LuCl3. In order to justify this channel we perform calculations of density of states using a periodic plane-wave density functional approach. The performed estimations theoretically justify the high LuI3:Ce3+ scintillator yield.
AN EXTREME STATE of skin irritation resulting in extensive erythema and/or scaling of the body in several skin disorders may ultimately culminate in erythroderma/exfoliative dermatitis. Largely, it is a secondary process; therefore, determining its cause is needed to facilitate precise management. Its clinical pattern is fascinating and has been the subject of detailed studies: Its changing scenario in various age groups, its presentation postoperatively, and its occurrence in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals are vivid indicators. Several factors may be responsible for the causation of this extensive skin disorder. A detailed outline of a patient's history to elicit possible triggering events, namely, infection, drug ingestion, topical application of medicaments, and sun/ultraviolet light exposure, among other factors. It is also challenging to manage the condition, because the intricate process puts an extensive strain on an already compromised body system. In addition, the original dermatosis may be masked by extensive erythema/scaling, thus making it difficult to obtain a clear-cut diagnosis. Its intriguing clinical expression in neonates/infants and children poses a serious emergent challenge for its life-threatening overture.
Erythroderma and exfoliative dermatitis are largely synonymous; however, erythroderma is the preferred term and is currently in vogue. The former is characterized by extensive and pronounced erythema, coupled with perceptible scaling, whereas the latter is conspicuous by the presence of widespread erythema and marked scaling. Accordingly, 90% or more skin-surface involvement is considered as a salient prerequisite to make a clinical diagnosis of exfoliative dermatitis.