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Recent falls in suicide rates should be accompanied by a decline in the prevalence of suicidal ideation.
We used a pseudo-cohort analytic strategy to examine trends in suicidal ideation measured identically in 2000 and 2007, in nationally representative English probability samples of adults aged ⩾ 16 years. Suicidal ideation included tiredness of life, death wishes and thoughts of suicide. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate trends in age-specific prevalence of suicidal ideation in the past year and past week between 2000 and 2007.
There were 6799 participants aged 16–71 years in 2000, and 6815 participants aged 16–78 years in 2007. There was little evidence of trends in prevalence of suicidal ideation, with the exception of women aged 44–50 years in 2007, whose prevalence was unusually high. Prevalence of suicidal ideation in the past year followed a W-shaped profile with age, with peaks at the transition to adulthood, in the forties, and in the oldest participants.
Despite falling suicide rates, suicidal ideation did not decline overall between 2000 and 2007. This may indicate the success of the National Suicide Prevention Strategy. Women aged 44–50 years in 2007 were, however, particularly prone to suicidal ideation. As they also have the highest age-adjusted prevalence of common mental disorders and the highest female suicide rate, there are clear implications for treatment access, availability and delivery in primary care.
This paper reports the first record of the endangered cerianthid Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. The observed distribution of the species over Paranaguá Bay is described and some aspects of its conservation are discussed.
Long-term physical conditions (LTCs) consume the largest share of healthcare budgets. Although common mental disorders (CMDs) and LTCs often co-occur, the potential impact of improved mental health treatment on severe disability and hospital admissions for physical health problems remains unknown.
A cross-sectional study of 7403 adults aged 16–95 years living in private households in England was performed. LTCs were ascertained by prompted self-report. CMDs were ascertained by structured clinical interview. Disability was assessed using questions about problems with activities of daily living. Population impact and potential preventive gain were estimated using population-attributable fraction (PAF), and conservative estimates were obtained using ‘treated non-cases’ as the reference group.
Of the respondents, 20.7% reported at least one LTC. The prevalence of CMDs increased with the number of LTCs, but over two-thirds (71.2%) of CMD cases in people with LTCs were untreated. Statistically significant PAFs were found for CMDs and recent hospital admission [13.5%, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 6.6–20.0] and severe disability (31.3%, 95% CI 27.1–35.2) after adjusting for LTCs and other confounders. Only the latter remained significant when using the most conservative estimate of PAF (21.8%, 95% CI 14.0–28.9), and this was reduced only slightly when considering only participants with LTCs (18.5%, 95% CI 7.9–27.9).
Better treatments for CMDs in people with LTCs could achieve almost the same population health gain in terms of reducing severe disability as those targeted at the entire population. Interventions to reduce the prevalence of CMDs among people with LTCs should be part of routine medical care.
The National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (NPMS) programme was partly designed to monitor trends in mental disorders, including depression, with comparable data spanning 1993 to 2007. Findings already published from this programme suggest that concerns about increasing prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs) may be unfounded. This article focuses on depression and tests the hypothesis that successive birth cohorts experience the same prevalence of depression as they age.
We carried out a pseudo-cohort analysis of a sequence of three cross-sectional surveys of the English household population using identical diagnostic instruments. The main outcome was ICD-10 depressive episode or disorder. Secondary outcomes were the depression subscales of the Clinical Interview Schedule – Revised (CIS-R).
There were 8670, 6977 and 6815 participants in 1993, 2000 and 2007 respectively. In men, the prevalence of depression increased between cohorts born in 1943–1949 and 1950–1956 [odds ratio (OR) 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–4.2], then remained relatively stable across subsequent cohorts. In women, there was limited evidence of change in prevalence of depression. Women born in 1957–1963, surveyed aged 44–50 years in 2007, had exceptionally high prevalence. It is not clear whether this represents a trend or a quirk of sampling.
There is no evidence of an increase in the prevalence of depression in male cohorts born since 1950. In women, there is limited evidence of increased prevalence. Demand for mental health services may stabilize or even fall for men.
This paper presents optimization studies on the formation of cadmium free buffer layers for high efficiency copper indium diselenide (CIGS) thin film solar cells using a vapor phase route. Indium sulfide layers have been deposited on CIGS substrates by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) at substrate temperatures between 140 and 260 °C using indium acetylacetonate and hydrogen sulfide precursors. The parametric study of the deposition temperature shows an optimal value at about 220°C, leading to an efficiency of 16.4 % which is a technological breakthrough. The analysis of the device shows that indium sulfide layers give an improvement of the blue response of the cells as compared a standard CdS processed cell, due to a high apparent band gap (2.7-2.8 eV), higher open circuit voltages (up to 665 mV) and fill factor (78 %). This denotes high interface quality of the system. Atomic diffusion processes of sodium and copper in the buffer layer are evidenced.
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