Book chapters will be unavailable on Saturday 24th August between 8am-12pm BST. This is for essential maintenance which will provide improved performance going forwards. Please accept our apologies for any inconvenience caused.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Since the discovery of the Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors, their physical properties have been investigated by various methods. The chemical state of Cu in Y-Ba-Cu-O compounds la one of the greatest issues because the mechanism of superconductivity in Y-Ba-Cu-O is not understood theoretically. We are analyzing X-ray fluorescence spectra of Cu compounds including superconductors, intending to analyze the chemical state of Cu in Y-Ba-Cu-O. As for other 3d transition elements, structures due to unpaired electrons appear clearly on the lower energy side of the Kα1 line of the element. However there are little differences observed among Cu Kα spectra of Cu compounds even if they are measured by a high-resolution two-crystal spectrometer (see Fig. 1). Although Cu is a member of 3d transition elements, its Kα spectrum shows somewhat different behavior compared with other 3d transition elements. This point is one subject we are interested in.
Pneumococcal serotype replacement is an important issue after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in children. After the introduction of 13-valent PCV, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 12F (Sp12F) have increased in some countries; however, an outbreak of Sp12F has not reported in the post-13-valent PCV era. We experienced a local outbreak of Sp12F during March through May 2016 in Tsuruoka city, Japan after the introduction of 13-valent PCV in 2013. The IPD patients were two children and seven adults, three of whom died with a rapid disease progress. Although the clear transmission route was not determined, eight of the nine patients (89%) had close contact with children, which suggests that transmitted colonisation of Sp12F among children and adults might be the source of transmission. Continuous monitoring of IPDs, along with the determination of pneumococcal serotypes, is warranted in the post–13-valent PCV era. New IPD control strategies may be needed if this fatal outbreak continues to occur.
Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections usually cause haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) equally in male and female children. This study investigated the localization of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in human brain and kidney tissues removed from forensic autopsy cases in Japan. A fatal case was used as a positive control in an outbreak of diarrhoeal disease caused by STEC O157:H7 in a kindergarten in Urawa in 1990. Positive immunodetection of Gb3 was significantly more frequent in female than in male distal and collecting renal tubules. To correlate this finding with a clinical outcome, a retrospective analysis of the predictors of renal failure in the 162 patients of two outbreaks in Japan was performed: one in Tochigi in 2002 and the other in Kagawa Prefecture in 2005. This study concludes renal failure, including HUS, was significantly associated with female sex, and the odds ratio was 4·06 compared to male patients in the two outbreaks. From 2006 to 2009 in Japan, the risk factor of HUS associated with STEC infection was analysed. The number of males and females and the proportion of females who developed HUS were calculated by age and year from 2006 to 2009. In 2006, 2007 and 2009 in adults aged >20 years, adult women were significantly more at risk of developing HUS in Japan.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a well-known energy source for muscle contraction. In this study, to visualize localization of ATP, a luciferin-luciferase reaction (LLR) was performed in mouse skeletal muscle with an “in vivo cryotechnique” (IVCT). First, to confirm if ATP molecules could be trapped and detected after glutaraldehyde (GA) treatment, ATP was directly attached to glass slides with GA, and LLR was performed. The LLR was clearly detected as an intentional design of the ATP attachment. The intensity of the light unit by LLR was correlated with the concentration of the GA-treated ATP in vitro. Next, LLR was evaluated in mouse skeletal muscles with IVCT followed by freeze-substitution fixation (FS) in acetone-containing GA. In such tissue sections the histological structure was well maintained, and the intensity of LLR in areas between muscle fibers and connective tissues was different. Moreover, differences in LLR among muscle fibers were also detected. For the IVCT-FS tissue sections, diaminobenzidine (DAB) reactions were clearly detected in type I muscle fibers and erythrocytes in capillaries, which demonstrated flow shape. Thus, it became possible to perform microscopic evaluation of the numbers of ATP molecules in the mouse skeletal muscles with IVCT, which mostly reflect living states.
We present a patient with mitochondrial hearing loss and a novel mitochondrial DNA transition, who underwent successful cochlear implantation.
An 11-year-old girl showed epilepsy and progressive hearing loss. Despite the use of hearing aids, she gradually lost her remaining hearing ability. Laboratory data revealed elevated lactate levels, indicating mitochondrial dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse, mild brain atrophy. Cochlear implantation was performed, and the patient's hearing ability was markedly improved. Whole mitochondrial DNA genome analysis revealed a novel heteroplasmic mitochondrial 625G>A transition in the transfer RNA gene for phenylalanine. This transition was not detected in blood DNA from the patient's mother and healthy controls. Mitochondrial respiratory chain activities in muscle were predominantly decreased in complex III.
This case indicates that cochlear implantation can be a valuable therapeutic option for patients with mitochondrial syndromic hearing loss.
Biaxially aligned film growth by dual-ion-beam sputtering method were studied for fluorite type (Zr0.85Y0.15O1.93(YSZ), Hf0.74Yb0.26O1.87, CeO2), pyrochlore type (Zr2Sm2O7), and rare-earth C type (Y2O3, Sm2O3) oxides on polycrystalline Ni-based alloy substrates. Cube-textured (all axes aligned with a <100> axis substrate normal) films were obtained for fluorite and pyrochlore ones by low energy (<300 eV) ion bombardment at low temperatures (< 300 °C). Besides, cube textured Y2O3 films were obtained in far narrow conditions with a quite low energy (150 eV)-ion bombardment at the temperature of 300°C. The assisting ion energy dependence was discussed in connection with lattice energies for these oxide crystals.
Chemical-vapor-deposition of titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) under the atmosphere at low temperature has been conducted. The structure of the obtained films was assessed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. These analyses indicated that amorphous TiOxHy films were obtained at gas temperatures in the range of 150–300 °C, and crystalline anatase-TiO2 film was formed at 350 °C. This distinction is accounted for by plausible chemical reactions as follows; the hydroxyl reaction of TTIP below 350 °C promotes the formation of the amorphous TiOxHy. As the temperature goes up to 350 °C, dehydrogenation of the TiOxHy films promotes to form crystalline TiO2. Also the obtained amorphous films were annealed for 10 min under the atmosphere in assessing the transformation proceeding in the solid state. The structural change is shown at 350 °C, indicating that the crystalline phase would be formed via dehydrogenation and polymerization on the surface of the amorphous phase under the atmosphere. The crystal size of the annealed films was evaluated in assessment for the transformation.
We developed a chemical-vapor deposition (CVD) apparatus with a 0.5×240 mm2 slit-type nozzle that scans at an area of 240×315 mm2 in the atmosphere. This apparatus forms uniform oxide crystals on substrates through the decomposition process of precursors emitted from the nozzle. In this study, ZnO whiskers were synthesized on a single-crystalline 8-inch wafer of (100)-oriented silicon using this apparatus. Morphological and crystallographic properties of the samples were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry.
We have studied the fc-dependent electronic structure of the layered colossal magnetoresistive manganite La1.2Sr1.8Mn2O7 using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We found dispersive energy bands as a function of the crystal momentum k near the Fermi level (EF). We have also performed local spin density approximation (LSDA)+U band-structure calculations on the current system. The overall experimental dispersion relation is basically in agreement with the band-structure calculations yet close to EF there is a significant deviation from the predicted dispersions. Instead of clear Fermi-surface (FS) crossings, we observe a depression of the features as the FS is approached as if there is a “pseudo” gap in the excitation spectrum. The pseudogap continuously opens with temperature and does not show further significant opening above Tc, corresponding to the metal-insulator transition. Those unusual aspects of the spectra has been discussed from the viewpoint of the strong electron-lattice coupling model.
La(Fe0.88Si0.12)13 shows peculiar magnetic properties such as the first order paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition and magnetic-field induced metamagnetic transition accompanied by the lattice expansion. The practical application using the magnetic transition temperature controlled by hydrogen absorption is expected in this compound. Here, the electronic structure of La(Fe0.88Si0.12)13 has been investigated by photoemission spectroscopy using synchrotron soft x-rays. The Fe 3s core-level photoemission spectra below and above the Curie temperature TC exhibit a satellite structure at ~ 4.3 eV higher binding energy than the main peak, which is attributed to the exchange splitting due to the local moment of Fe. The exchange splitting of the Fe 3s photoemission spectrum with the asymmetric line shape shows that the magnetization of La(Fe0.88Si0.12)13 is derived by the exchange split Fe 3d bands like the itinerant ferromagnetism in Fe metal, while the magnetic transition of La(Fe0.88Si0.12)13 is the first order. The valence band photoemission spectrum shows temperature dependence across the TC. The temperature dependence of the photoemission spectra is discussed based on the difference between the electronic structure in the ferromagnetic phase and that in the paramagnetic phase.