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To identify predominant dietary patterns in four African populations and examine their association with obesity.
We used data from the Africa/Harvard School of Public Health Partnership for Cohort Research and Training (PaCT) pilot study established to investigate the feasibility of a multi-country longitudinal study of non-communicable chronic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. We applied principal component analysis to dietary intake data collected from an FFQ developed for PaCT to ascertain dietary patterns in Tanzania, South Africa, and peri-urban and rural Uganda. The sample consisted of 444 women and 294 men.
We identified two dietary patterns: the Mixed Diet pattern characterized by high intakes of unprocessed foods such as vegetables and fresh fish, but also cold cuts and refined grains; and the Processed Diet pattern characterized by high intakes of salad dressing, cold cuts and sweets. Women in the highest tertile of the Processed Diet pattern score were 3·00 times more likely to be overweight (95 % CI 1·66, 5·45; prevalence=74 %) and 4·24 times more likely to be obese (95 % CI 2·23, 8·05; prevalence=44 %) than women in this pattern’s lowest tertile (both P<0·0001; prevalence=47 and 14 %, respectively). We found similarly strong associations in men. There was no association between the Mixed Diet pattern and overweight or obesity.
We identified two major dietary patterns in several African populations, a Mixed Diet pattern and a Processed Diet pattern. The Processed Diet pattern was associated with obesity.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.
Our current knowledge of star formation and accretion luminosity at high redshift (z > 3–4), as well as the possible connections between them, relies mostly on observations in the rest-frame ultraviolet, which are strongly affected by dust obscuration. Due to the lack of sensitivity of past and current infrared instrumentation, so far it has not been possible to get a glimpse into the early phases of the dust-obscured Universe. Among the next generation of infrared observatories, SPICA, observing in the 12–350 µm range, will be the only facility that can enable us to trace the evolution of the obscured star-formation rate and black-hole accretion rate densities over cosmic time, from the peak of their activity back to the reionisation epoch (i.e., 3 < z ≲ 6–7), where its predecessors had severe limitations. Here, we discuss the potential of photometric surveys performed with the SPICA mid-infrared instrument, enabled by the very low level of impact of dust obscuration in a band centred at 34 µm. These unique unbiased photometric surveys that SPICA will perform will fully characterise the evolution of AGNs and star-forming galaxies after reionisation.
There is some suggestion that infection with pandemic influenza may increase long-term mortality risks. Therefore we aimed to determine if exposure to a severe outbreak of pandemic influenza on a troopship in 1918 impacted on lifespan in the survivors. The troopship with the outbreak cohort had 1107 personnel and the comparison cohort was from two contemporaneous troopships (1108 randomly selected personnel). Data were collected from online individual military files. The main finding was that there was no statistically significant difference in the lifespan of the outbreak cohort and the comparison cohort (means of 71·5 and 71·0 years, respectively). Indeed, the outbreak cohort was actually more likely to survive into the period from 1950 onwards (P = 0·036) and to participate in the Second World War (P = 0·043). There were no significant differences between the cohorts in terms of occupational class, but the comparison cohort had a higher proportion of rural occupations (33·3% vs. 27·0%, P < 0·001) and was very slightly older in mid-1918 (27·8 vs. 27·2 years, P = 0·028). In conclusion, this study found no support for the hypothesis that exposure to the 1918 influenza pandemic adversely impacted on the lifespan in the survivors, at least in this male and military-age population.
Most research on interventions to counter stigma and discrimination has
focused on short-term outcomes and has been conducted in high-income
To synthesise what is known globally about effective interventions to
reduce mental illness-based stigma and discrimination, in relation first
to effectiveness in the medium and long term (minimum 4 weeks), and
second to interventions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).
We searched six databases from 1980 to 2013 and conducted a
multi-language Google search for quantitative studies addressing the
research questions. Effect sizes were calculated from eligible studies
where possible, and narrative syntheses conducted. Subgroup analysis
compared interventions with and without social contact.
Eighty studies (n = 422 653) were included in the
review. For studies with medium or long-term follow-up (72, of which 21
had calculable effect sizes) median standardised mean differences were
0.54 for knowledge and −0.26 for stigmatising attitudes. Those containing
social contact (direct or indirect) were not more effective than those
without. The 11 LMIC studies were all from middle-income countries.
Effect sizes were rarely calculable for behavioural outcomes or in LMIC
There is modest evidence for the effectiveness of anti-stigma
interventions beyond 4 weeks follow-up in terms of increasing knowledge
and reducing stigmatising attitudes. Evidence does not support the view
that social contact is the more effective type of intervention for
improving attitudes in the medium to long term. Methodologically strong
research is needed on which to base decisions on investment in
This paper, a report by the Clinical Governance and Audit Committee of the Scottish Otolaryngological Society, presents a consensus view of the minimal requirements for ENT clinics in National Health Service hospitals.
Results and conclusion:
The provision of adequate equipment and staff has gained increasing importance as the vast majority of ENT procedures can be safely performed in the out-patient or office setting.
Suicide is a major global public health issue. Mental illness is a risk factor for suicide, but as many individuals with a diagnosed mental health problem do not experience suicidal ideation or attempt suicide, other individual and societal factors must be considered. Mental illness-related discrimination is one potential risk factor.
Using mixed methods, the influence of discrimination on suicidality amongst 194 individuals diagnosed with depression, bipolar or schizophrenia spectrum disorders was investigated. Qualitative interviews with a sub-sample of 58 individuals who reported a link between experience of discrimination and suicidality were analysed using framework analysis. Quantitative methods were used to examine the model derived from qualitative analyses.
Results indicate that the experience of discrimination led 38% of the overall sample of 194 participants, to suicidal feelings and 20% reported that it contributed to making a suicide attempt. The qualitative model derived from interviews with a sub-sample of 58 participants suggested that the experience of discrimination is experienced as a stressor that exceeds coping resources, leading to a negative self-image and a perception of decreased supportive networks/social structure. The anticipation of further negative events and treatment, and the perception of a lack of supportive networks led individuals in this study to feelings of hopelessness and suicidality. Quantitative analyses provided support for the model.
These data suggest that both psychological therapies aimed at improving coping skills and population-level anti-stigma interventions that reduce the occurrence of discrimination may provide some protection against suicide amongst individuals with mental health problems.
Individuals often avoid or delay seeking professional help for mental health problems. Stigma may be a key deterrent to help-seeking but this has not been reviewed systematically. Our systematic review addressed the overarching question: What is the impact of mental health-related stigma on help-seeking for mental health problems? Subquestions were: (a) What is the size and direction of any association between stigma and help-seeking? (b) To what extent is stigma identified as a barrier to help-seeking? (c) What processes underlie the relationship between stigma and help-seeking? (d) Are there population groups for which stigma disproportionately deters help-seeking?
Five electronic databases were searched from 1980 to 2011 and references of reviews checked. A meta-synthesis of quantitative and qualitative studies, comprising three parallel narrative syntheses and subgroup analyses, was conducted.
The review identified 144 studies with 90 189 participants meeting inclusion criteria. The median association between stigma and help-seeking was d = − 0.27, with internalized and treatment stigma being most often associated with reduced help-seeking. Stigma was the fourth highest ranked barrier to help-seeking, with disclosure concerns the most commonly reported stigma barrier. A detailed conceptual model was derived that describes the processes contributing to, and counteracting, the deterrent effect of stigma on help-seeking. Ethnic minorities, youth, men and those in military and health professions were disproportionately deterred by stigma.
Stigma has a small- to moderate-sized negative effect on help-seeking. Review findings can be used to help inform the design of interventions to increase help-seeking.
Bipolar disorder (BD) has been reported to be associated with high risk of suicide. We aimed to investigate the frequency and characteristics of suicide in people with BD in a national sample.
Suicide in BD in England from 1996 to 2009 was explored using descriptive statistics on data collected by the National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness (NCI). Suicide cases with a primary diagnosis of BD were compared to suicide cases with any other primary diagnosis.
During the study period 1489 individuals with BD died by suicide, an average of 116 cases/year. Compared to other primary diagnosis suicides, those with BD were more likely to be female, more than 5 years post-diagnosis, current/recent in-patients, to have more than five in-patient admissions, and to have depressive symptoms. In BD suicides the most common co-morbid diagnoses were personality disorder and alcohol dependence. Approximately 40% were not prescribed mood stabilizers at the time of death. More than 60% of BD suicides were in contact with services the week prior to suicide but were assessed as low risk.
Given the high rate of suicide in BD and the low estimates of risk, it is important that health professionals can accurately identify patients most likely to experience poor outcomes. Factors such as alcohol dependence/misuse, personality disorder, depressive illness and current/recent in-patient admission could characterize a high-risk group. Future studies need to operationalize clinically useful indicators of suicide risk in BD.
Bactericidal activities of three different afterglows operating at reduced and atmospheric pressures and ambient temperature are established and compared through the use of a unique protocol for bacteria (E. coli, CIP 54.8 T) exposition, recovery and numeration. The influence of three important parameters is shown. An original scenario for bacterial inactivation at reduced pressure is proposed, compatible with previously published results and with the observation of conformational changes appearing on the treated bacteria.
Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in developing countries. After malaria, schistosomiasis is the most important tropical disease in terms of human morbidity with significant economic and public health consequences. Although schistosomiasis has recently attracted increased focus and funding for control, it has been estimated that less than 20% of the funding needed to control the disease in Africa is currently available. In this article the following issues are discussed: the rationale, development and objectives of the Schistosomiasis Control Initiative (SCI)-supported programmes; the management approaches followed to achieve implementation by each country; mapping, monitoring and evaluation activities with quantifiable impact of control programmes; monitoring for any potential drug resistance; and finally exit strategies within each country. The results have demonstrated that morbidity due to schistosomiasis has been reduced by the control programmes. While challenges remain, the case for the control of schistosomiasis has been strengthened by research by SCI teams and the principle that a national programme using ‘preventive chemotherapy’ can be successfully implemented in sub-Saharan Africa, whenever the resources are available. SCI and partners are now actively striving to raise further funds to expand the coverage of integrated control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in sub-Saharan Africa.
L’irradiation des patients et de l’opérateur au cours de coronarographie et/ou angioplastie coronaire, fait désormais partie des préoccupations légitimes de la cardiologie interventionnelle moderne. Les voies fémorales et radiales droites sont les voies d’accès privilégiées pour la réalisation de ces examens. Néanmoins, peu de registres comparent ces 2 voies d’abord en terme d’irradiation du patient et de l’opérateur. L’objectif de ce registre est une évaluation comparative de ces 2 techniques. 423 patients consécutifs ayant bénéficié dans notre centre de l’une ou l’autre de ces techniques réalisées entre octobre 2005 et mars 2006 ont été inclus. Les paramètres retenus sont les suivants : dose bras gauche opérateur, produit dose × surface pour le patient, temps global des procédures et durée de la scopie. Pour les 4 paramètres étudiés, les résultats sont significativement supérieurs en cas de coronarographie et coronarographie plus angioplastie ad hoc par voie radiale que par voie fémorale. Respectivement : (1) temps de scopie : 4 min versus 1,8 min, et 9,6 min versus 6,3 min ; (2) temps de procédure : 15 min versus 9,5, et 41 min versus 35,25 min ; (3) dose patient : 59 Gy cm2versus 37,5 Gy cm2, et 123 Gy cm2versus 102 Gy cm2 ; (4) dose opérateur : 29 µSv versus 13 µSv, et 69 µSv versus 40 µSv. Malgré son intérêt en terme d’économie de complication de voie d’abord, la voie radiale droite est significativement plus irradiante pour les patients et les opérateurs que la voie fémorale droite.
Image sensors based on thin-film on CMOS technology (TFC) have been developed. In this approach, amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) detectors are vertically integrated on top of a CMOS readout chip so as to form monolithic image sensors. In order to reduce as far as possible the dark current density (Jdark) of the TFC sensors, we have focused on analyzing and understanding the behavior of Jdark in this type of detectors. Edge effects along the periphery and at the corners of the pixel, due to the non planar configuration of the vertically integrated photodiodes, are found to be responsible for an increase of the dark current. A new and adapted solution for the minimization of Jdark is proposed, which combines the use of a metal-i-p a-Si:H diode configuration with a deposition on top of an unpassivated CMOS chip. Values of Jdark as low as 12 pA/cm2 at a reverse polarization of V = -1 V are measured on such TFC sensors.
A double-blind randomized prospective case-control pilot study was performed to assess tissue distortion caused by the infiltration of local anaesthetic to the dorsum of the nose and to see if this was altered by the addition of hyaluronidase. Forty patients undergoing nasal manipulation for fractured nasal bones were randomized to receive either 4 ml of twoper cent lignocaine and adrenaline 1:200000 or 4 ml of two per cent lignocaine and adrenaline 1:200000 with 1500 IU hyaluronidase, which was infiltrated subcutaneously over the nasal dorsum.One surgeon using a standardized technique performed the nasal infiltration. Other outcome measures were ease of manipulation, adequacy of the reduction, patient satisfaction with cosmesisand patient analgesia requirements. There were trends for decreased tissue distortion and improved ease of manipulation in the hyaluronidase group. Larger trials are required to confirm these results.
A preliminary physiological characterization of osmoregulation in an Aspergillus nidulans salt sensitive mutant carrying cotransformed
DNA sequences from the marine hyphomycete Dendryphiella salina is described. A genomic DNA library made in lambda EMBL3
was cotransformed with the plasmid pDJB3 into an A. nidulans host carrying a selectable marker for transformation (pyrG89) and a
salt sensitivity mutation (sltA1). In some cases D. salina clones appeared to directly complement the salt sensitivity mutation by
restoring salt and arginine insensitivity. Other clones gave marked increases in salt tolerance and yet the hosts remained arginine
sensitive. Improvements in salt tolerance correlated with an enhanced ability to induce polyol biosynthesis during salt challenge.
Thermal stresses in pure Al lines passivated with a baseline 1000Å oxide and additional passivations of 0.5μm oxide, 1μm polymer, or 0.5μm, 1μm, or 2μ nitride were analyzed. Results from finite element analysis and X-ray measurements were compared, and samples were examined in a high voltage SEM for stress voids. For unvoided samples, calculated and measured results showed good correlation, while results for the voided samples showed little correlation due to stress relaxation through voiding. Initial in-situ electromigration test results showed that electromigration voids can occur at stress void sites.
It is known from literature that the properties of thin films greatly depend on their structuare. Therefore, the microstructural design is attractive for control over the properties of thin metal films used for interconnect metallization.
In this paper we discuss the potentialities of the self-ion assisted deposition technique for control over the grain and grain boundary structures of thin metal films and their properties such as resistivity and immunity to electromigration.
It was found that resistivity of aluminum films deposited at the 6 kV bias was virtually equal to resistivity of bulk aluminum. Films deposited at the less bias or without it had higher resistivities. Abnormal grain growth was found in 6 kV-films. In films prepared without bias normal grain growth proceeds.
This paper investigates the sensitivity and limitation of capacitor testing for measuring potential charging damage to gate oxides in a given plasma step. While C-V measurements are the most directly related to transistor threshold voltage (Vth) and transconductance (gm), C-V measurements are slow, difficult to automate and not usable for large antenna structures without a fuse link. In contrast, ramp breakdown measurements are quick and easy to automate but lack sensitivity. Charge-to-breakdown offers better sensitivity but with long measurement times. A more promising method is the V-t measurement where the slope dV/dt after initial charging is a measure of the trapping generation rate and is found to be very sensitive to charge damage. The damage sensitivity of this method is high and involves tradeoffs between antenna ratio, testing current and testing time. All of which are critical to damage testing. Leakage measurements are another method which offers short measurement times and high sensitivity. Their limitations are the noise level of the measurement system and the making of good probe contact to the gate material.