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Concentrations of a highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) diene determined in over 200 sediment samples from the Arctic co-vary with those of an HBI monoene (IP25) shown previously to be a sedimentary sea ice proxy for the Arctic. The same diene, but not monoene IP25, occurred in nine sea ice samples collected from various locations around Antarctica. The diene has been reported previously in Antarctic sea ice diatoms and the 13C isotopic compositions of the diene determined in two Antarctic sea ice samples were also consistent with an origin from sea ice diatoms (δ13C -5.7 to -8.5‰). In contrast, HBIs found in two Antarctic phytoplankton samples did not include the diene but comprised a number of tri- to pentaenes. In sediment samples collected near Adélie Land, East Antarctica, both the diene and the tri- to pentaenes often co-occurred. 13C isotopic compositions of the tri- to pentaenes in three sediment samples ranged from -35 to -42‰ whereas that of the diene in a sediment sample was -18‰. We propose the presence of this isotopically 13C enriched HBI diene in Antarctic sediments to be a useful proxy indicator for contributions of organic matter derived from sea ice diatoms. A ratio of the concentrations of diene/trienes might reflect the relative contributions of sea ice to phytoplanktonic inputs of organic matter to Antarctic sediments.
Faeces of healthy adults and of children under the age of 5, none of whom were attending hospital or receiving antibiotics, were examined for the presence of antibiotic resistant coliform bacilli.
A higher proportion of children (67%) than of adults (46%) carried resistant strains and this difference was observed in both the rural and urban groups.
Rural members of both age groups more often carried resistant organisms than urban members. Among rural adults, the incidence of drug-resistant strains was 63 % in those whose occupation involved close contact with farm animals, compared with 29 % in those with other occupations. The survey took place before the implementation of the Swann Report could have influenced the use of antibiotics in animal foodstuffs.
Transmissible R-factors were demonstrated in 61 % of the resistant strains. The incidence of transmissible resistance was similar among adults and children in town and country.
An outbreak of Salmonella paratyphi B infection in the UK associated with a fish-and-chip shop is reported. The source of infection for the first three cases was believed to be a food handler who was infected overseas 6 years earlier. His wife whose faeces and urine were originally culture negative continued to run the shop but subsequently her faeces became positive on one occasion. She was considered to have been the source of two further cases, and secondary household spread of infection from these two cases resulted in one symptomatic and two asymptomatic infections. A second household contact of the proprietor also became a faecal excretor 2 months later. We recommend that food handlers living in households or in intimate contact with eases or carriers of S. paratyphi B should be put off work until all household contacts cease excreting the organism.