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The mechanisms by which a wetting, non-saturating liquid bestows macroscopic cohesion and strength to a granular material are usually not accessible to micromechanical investigations for saturations exceeding the pendular regime of isolated menisci, easily studied by discrete element models (DEM). The paper by Delenne et al. (J. Fluid Mech., 2015, vol. 762, R5) exploiting a multiphase lattice Boltzmann approach, pioneers the simulation of the micromorphology and of the mechanical effects on grains of an interstitial liquid, in equilibrium with its vapour, for the whole saturation range. Interestingly, in accordance with some experiments and phenomenological models, the results suggest that the mechanical effect of capillary forces is maximized for some intermediate saturation level (near 40 % in the model), well beyond the pendular range. In general, the proposed simulation technique opens the way to many studies of partially saturated granular assemblies, for different saturation or imbibition processes and histories.
Electroabsorption spectroscopy of well-identified index-defined semiconducting carbon nanotubes is reported. The measurement of high definition electroabsorption spectra allows direct indexation with unique nanotube chirality. Results show that at least for a limited range of diameters, electroabsorption is directly proportional to the exciton binding energy of nanotubes. Electroabsorption is a powerful technique which directly probes into carbon nanotube excitonic states, and may become a useful tool for in situ study of excitons in future nanotube-based photonic devices such as electroabsorption modulators.
Comparative tests on SGN and Radon simulated ILW vitrification with a cold crucible based experimental plant were performed. The batch was fed as paste with 20 wt.% moisture. An operation conditions, the ability of the cold crucible to maintain the differential pressure during the operation, process variables, product properties, off-gas and condensate compositions, the effect of melt agitation on melter capacity and cesium loss have been determined. Melt viscosity and resistivity have been measured. Material structures were studied using infra-red spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Leach rates of sodium and potassium cations as well as Cs-137 have been measured. The behavior of sulfate and chloride ions in the vitrification process as well as their solubility in SGN and “Radon” glasses have been investigated.
In the diffraction community, the goniometer is the main part of the diffractometer, essential for orienting the samples. To characterize the goniometer, the sphere of confusion (SoC) has been measured. The SoC describes the minimal sphere that enclosed the measurements. This essential information is very important for the diffractometer users. In collaboration with Symetrie Inc., Soleil Synchrotron and the CEA, the SoC has been measured with three different metrology methods. These three measurement techniques and the associated results are discussed in this article.
We present the latest results of our on-going closed-loop “end-to-end” numerical adaptive optics (AO) simulations concerning both a standard-AO and a three-star
ground-layer AO system for a near-infrared 2-m class telescope at Dome C, Antarctica. We demonstrate that Dome C is an ideal site for wide-field AO-aided astronomy,
define in details the AO system(s) optimized for the median turbulence profile considered, and finally show that a ~0.3 Strehl ratio and 200-mas-wide stable point-spread
function is reached in band J on at least a 15'-diameter field.
In this article the main contents of this special issue are introduced. In particular, some of the main problems related to multi-level electoral competition in Italy are presented and how this work intends to analyse them. It will be shown that both parties and voters have strategically adapted and responded to the challenges of multi-level electoral competition to an extent that was probably unexpected in a system undergoing transformation and whose inefficiencies are a conventional wisdom.
Embedded electric HVDC distribution network are facing
difficult issues on quality and stability concerns. In order to help
to resolve those problems, this paper proposes to develop an
analytical model of an electric drive. This self-contained model
includes an inverter, its regulation loops and the PMSM. After
comparing the model with its equivalent (abc) full model, the study
focuses on frequency analysis. The association with an input filter
helps in expressing stability of the whole assembly by means of
The Gattini-DomeC project, part of the IRAIT site testing campaign and ongoing since January 2006, consists of two cameras for the measurement of optical sky brightness, large area cloud cover, and auroral detection above the DomeC site, home of the French-Italian Concordia station. The cameras are transit in nature and are virtually identical except for the nature of the lenses. The cameras have operated throughout the past two Antarctic winter seasons and here we present the results obtained from the 2006 winter-time dataset of the wide field “All-sky camera".
The Wide-field High-resolution Infrared TElescope (WHITE)
that we propose for Dome C
will be dedicated in the first years of its life to
carry out a few legacy surveys (well-focused in terms of science
objectives and time). WHITE would have an angular resolution of ~0.3'' uniform over ~0.7 sq. deg. in the wavelength range 1 µm to 5 µm, which means that we will very efficiently use all the available observational time during night time and day time. Moreover, the deepest observations will be performed by summing up shorter individual frames. We will obtain temporal information that can be used to study variable objects. The three key science objectives of WHITE are: 1) A survey of the Magellanic Clouds to make a complete census of young stellar objects in the Clouds and in the Bridge and to study their star formation history and the link with the Milky Way. The interaction of the two Clouds with our Galaxy might be the closest example of a minor merging event that could be the main driver of galaxy evolution in the last 5 Gyrs. 2) Establishing of the first sample of dusty supernovae at z < 1.2 in the near infrared range (1.0 - 5.0 µm) to constrain the equation of state of these obscured objects, study the formation of dust in galaxies, and build the first high resolution sample of high-redshift galaxies observed in their optical frame 3) A very wide weak lensing survey that would allow to estimate the equation of state of dark energy in a way that would favourably compete with space projects.
We report on the synthesis of our work on the analysis of
active spectro-polarimetric imaging concept of real-world scenes. These
synthesis extend from the investigation of depolarization mechanisms up to
image analysis and processing. We show in particular that depolarization
effects are wavelength dependent and strongly correlated with light
absorption of materials. Multi-wavelength images of degree of polarization
are recorded and analyzed, evidencing that the polarimetric image must be
interpreted in conjunction with its counterpart intensity image in order to
extract, the most relevant information from the scene. For real field
operation, the noise characteristics of polarimetric images are also
investigated under coherent laser illumination. The potential increase of
target detection performance brought by properly processing the active
polarimetric image is illustrated on a very low contrast scene.
Surveys provide a wealth of data to the astronomical community that are used well after their completion. In this paper, we propose a project that would take the maximum benefit of Dome C in Antarctica by performing two surveys, in the wavelength range from 1–5 µm, complementary to SNAP space surveys. The first one over 1000 sq. deg. (1 KdF) for 4 years and the second one over 15 sq. deg (SNAP-IR) for the next 4 years at the same time as SNAP 0.35–1.7 µm survey. By using a Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics system, we would be able to recover, at the ice level and over at least half a degree in radius, the ~300 mas angular resolution available above the 30-m high turbulent layer. Such a survey, combining a high angular resolution with high sensitivities in the NIR and MIR, should also play the role of a pre-survey for JWST and ALMA.
The Gattini cameras are two site testing instruments for the measurement of optical sky brightness, large area cloud cover and auroral detection of the night sky above the high altitude Dome C site in Antarctica. The cameras have been operating since installation in January 2006 and are currently at the end of the first Antarctic winter season. The cameras are transit in nature and are virtually identical, both adopting Apogee Alta CCD detectors. By taking frequent images of the night sky we obtain long term cloud cover statistics, measure the sky background intensity as a function of solar and lunar altitude and phase and directly measure the spatial extent of bright aurora if present and when they occur. The full data set will return in December 2006 however a limited amount of data has been transferred via the Iridium network enabling preliminary data reduction and system evaluation. An update of the project is presented together with preliminary results from data taken since commencement of the winter season.
The migratory stage of Trichinella spiralis, the newborn larva, travels along the pulmonary microvascular system on its way to the striated muscle cells. In the present study, an important inflammatory reaction was observed on days 5 and 14 post-infection (p.i.) in the lungs of infected rats. This inflammation was characterized by a Th2 cell phenotype of hyperplastic bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and by goblet cell hyperplasia. Among the inflammatory cells were eosinophils and mast cells scattered over the pulmonary parenchyma. On day 5 p.i. the number of IgE+, CD4+ and CD5+ cells in the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue were increased and IgE-secreting lung cells were also detected. At the end of the migratory phase of the infection (day 14 p.i.), only IgE+ cells were detected in high numbers and in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, an increment in the total IgE levels as well as the presence of IgE and IgA anti-larvae surface were also detected. In cytotoxicity assays, cells from the bronchoalveolar lavage had considerable biological activity since they were able to kill the larvae even in the absence of specific antibodies. These results show that the lung is an organ involved in the immune response developed early during a T. spiralis infection and suggest its importance in the protection of the host.
Tests were performed on austenitic stainless steels. In order to investigate
thermal fatigue resistance of quasi-structural specimens, test facilities enforcing
temperature variations similar to those found under the operative conditions have been
developed. Multiple cracking networks similar to those detected during in-service
inspections have been reproduced. Experiments and simulations deal with crack initiation
and crack growth. In the case of multiple cracking simulation, a Skelton's modelling has
been used. A shielding effect between cracks is evidenced. It leads to a dramatic reduction
of crack growth rate. Such effect is also crucial for the crack network stability under