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A wealth of research documents the rise of affective polarization, or the increasing disdain for the out-party in American politics. In this paper, we analyze ANES data from 1988 to 2016 to investigate the contribution of core value polarization to the phenomenon of out-party enmity. We find that greater differences in fundamental principles relate significantly to emotionally intense evaluations of the opposing party and its candidates, as well as the ideological out-group, independent of issue attitude extremity and the strength of one's partisan and ideological identities. Moreover, ANES panel data from 1992 to 1996 reveal that past value extremity promotes future affective polarization. These results are important for our understanding of the nature and extent of value-based polarization in American politics.
1. Examine the associations among BMI and markers of cardiometabolic risk, including blood pressure, lipids and blood glucose.
2. Assess prevalence of kidney function deterioration, identified as hyperfiltration and moderately increased albuminuria (MIA), in obese compared to normal weight adolescents.
METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: De-identified electronic health records (EHR) data were extracted for female adolescents, aged 12-21 years, and their offspring through 24 months, who received health care services (Jan 2012 to Dec 2016) in NYC from 12 academic health centers and community health centers that are part of PCORnet NYC Clinical Data Research Network (NYC-CDRN). Data were analyzed using SAS (version 3.2.5). Patient characteristics overall and for study subgroups were examined using standard summary statistics. Trends in cardio-renal variables were examined by BMI groups coded according to NHANES as underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese. Multiple linear regression analyses will control for covariates. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Data from 651,066 adolescent females ages 12-21 were retrieved. Analysis was performed on a subset of 202,214 unique patients (26% white, 15% black, 12.9% Latina) for whom there was complete data for BMI and blood pressure. Distribution of BMI was 6% underweight, 59% normal weight, 19% overweight, and 17% obese. There were significant differences in mean systolic (SBP, mean±SD mmHg: 102±12, 108±11, 112±12, 116±12) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean±SD mmHg: 62±10, 66±8, 68±8.9, 70±9) across the four BMI groups with an increasing trend (p-values<0.0001). We will examine renal function trends, and whether these cardio-renal differences persist when controlling for age, race and ethnicity. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Although SBP/DBP means were within normal limits across BMI groups, significant increasing trends suggest that women in higher BMI groups may be at increased risk for hypertension and potentially for renal dysfunction. We will examine contributions of race/ ethnicity and age to these associations.
This chapter provides an historical account of why the institutional setting of the BIS has been conducive to the emergence of soft law as a critical tool for managing the global financial system. Soft law developed almost naturally at the BIS as a result of the many technocratic issues it was called on to deal with throughout its long history – be it German reparation payments in the 1930s, the management of the Bretton Woods system of fixed exchange rates in the 1960s or growing financial stability concerns in the 1970s and 1980s and beyond. The Basel I Capital Accord, adopted in 1988, was a political and regulatory watershed in that respect – a non-binding code of conduct agreed by an informal committee of experts (the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision), that was subsequently implemented by national legislation in all the main constituencies. The chapter argues that the relative success of soft law in financial regulation owes a lot to the particular set-up and traditions of the BIS. However, it concludes that in order to be successful in future, soft law – much like the BIS – will have to become ever more inclusive and transparent.
It is a commonplace to state that we live in a time of continuous change. But that doesn’t make it any less true. The force and impact of change become all the more obvious when considering a horizon that spans two generations. Fifty years ago, a mere handful of advanced industrial economies dominated the global economy. Since then, a wide array of countries have emerged as new economic powerhouses. Economic development and prosperity are now more equally spread across the globe than at any other time over at least the past two centuries.
Rapid crop canopy formation is important to reduce weed emergence and selection for herbicide resistance. Field experiments were conducted in 2017 and 2018 in Fayetteville, AR, to evaluate the impacts of PRE applications of flumioxazin on soybean injury, soybean density, canopy formation, and incidence of soil-borne pathogens. Flumioxazin was applied at 0, 70, and 105 g ai ha−1 to predetermined flumioxazin-tolerant and -sensitive soybean varieties. Flumioxazin at 70 g ha−1 injured the tolerant and sensitive varieties from 0% to 4% and 14% to 15%, respectively. When averaged over flumioxazin rates, density of the sensitive variety was only reduced in 2017 when activation of flumioxazin was delayed 7 d. Compared to the tolerant soybean variety, flumioxazin at 70 g ha−1 delayed the sensitive variety from reaching 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% groundcover by 15, 16, 11, and 5 d, respectively. No delay in canopy closure (95% groundcover) was observed with either variety. Consequently, no yield loss occurred for either variety following a flumioxazin application. Flumioxazin did not impact root colonization of Didymella, Fusarium, Macrophomina, or Rhizoctonia. Pythium colonization of the soybean stem was increased by flumioxazin in 2017, but not in 2018. Increased injury, delays in percent groundcover, and an increase in Pythium colonization of soybean following a flumioxazin application may warrant the need for other soil-applied herbicides at soybean planting. Alternatively, soybean injury and delays in percent groundcover following flumioxazin applications can be mitigated through appropriate variety selection; however, comprehensive screening is needed to determine which varieties are most tolerant to flumioxazin.