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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has greatly impacted health-care systems worldwide, leading to an unprecedented rise in demand for health-care resources. In anticipation of an acute strain on established medical facilities in Dallas, Texas, federal officials worked in conjunction with local medical personnel to convert a convention center into a Federal Medical Station capable of caring for patients affected by COVID-19. A 200,000 square foot event space was designated as a direct patient care area, with surrounding spaces repurposed to house ancillary services. Given the highly transmissible nature of the novel coronavirus, the donning and doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) was of particular importance for personnel staffing the facility. Furthermore, nationwide shortages in the availability of PPE necessitated the reuse of certain protective materials. This article seeks to delineate the procedures implemented regarding PPE in the setting of a COVID-19 disaster response shelter, including workspace flow, donning and doffing procedures, PPE conservation, and exposure event protocols.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Access to pediatric subspecialty care varies by sociodemographic factors. Providers for gender diverse youth (GDY) are rare, and GDY face health disparities, stigma, and discrimination. We examined the association between GDY access to medical and mental health care and rurality, race, parental education, and other GDY-specific factors. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We surveyed parents of GDY (<18 years old) across the United States. Participants were recruited through online communities and listserves specific to parents of GDY. We determined associations between access to gender-specific medical or mental health providers and rurality, race, parental education, as well as other GDY-specific factors including age, time since telling their parent their gender identity, parent-adolescent communication, parent stress, and gender identity using chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests. We calculated adjusted odds ratios using logistic regression models. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We surveyed 166 parents and caregivers from 31 states. The majority (73.2%) identified as white, 66.5% had earned a bachelor’s degree or higher, and 7.6% lived in a zip code designated rural by the Federal Office of Rural Health Policy. We found no evidence of association between reported GDY access to medical or mental health care and race, parental education, or rurality. We did find a significant univariate association between access to mental health care and feminine (either female or transfeminine/transfemale) gender identity (p = 0.033, OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.06 – 6.36). After controlling for parent-adolescent communication in a backwards elimination logistic regression model, it was no longer significant (p = 0.137, OR 2.05, 95% CI 0.80 – 5.25). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Despite rurality, race, and parental education impacting access to pediatric subspecialty care, we failed to find these associations among GDY accessing gender care. There is a need to better understand structural and societal barriers to care for this population including the impact of stigma and discrimination.
Progressive gray matter volume reductions have been found in schizophrenia and greater changes seem to be related to poorer outcome1,2. As patients with schizophrenia who use cannabis have a worse prognosis 3, the progressive gray matter change in these patients might be even greater.
Fifty-one patients with recent-onset schizophrenia (cannabis users n=19; non-users n=32) and thirty-one matched healthy comparison subjects were included in this five year longitudinal MRI study. All subjects were assessed at inclusion and after five years. Total brain, gray and white matter, cerebellar, lateral and third ventricle volumes were measured. Percentages of volume change over time were calculated. Univariate analysis of covariance and pairwise comparisons were performed.
Cannabis using patients, non-using patients and healthy comparison subjects differed significantly in total brain, gray matter, lateral and third ventricles and cerebellum volumes. No change in white matter was observed between the groups.
Cannabis using patients with schizophrenia showed a more rapid decrease in total brain and cerebellar volume and increase in lateral and third ventricle volumes as compared to healthy subject and non-using patients. Gray matter volume decrease occurred in all patients with schizophrenia as compared to healthy subjects, but was significantly greater in patients using cannabis.
In schizophrenia progressive gray matter volume decrease occurs during the first five years of illness. Cannabis use causes an additional decrease of gray matter in patients with schizophrenia and could be explained by either a worse illness outcome or the effects of cannabis.
The Maghrib has a rich tradition of archaeological studies. However, this research has been biased from the chronological and cultural points of view. This is due to different reasons, relating to both the nature of the archaeological record and the ideological and political circumstances that developed successively under colonial rule and, from the mid-twentieth century, in the modern independent states of the area.
In general, comparatively little attention has been paid to the indigenous cultures of the pre-Roman period, in particular as regards dwelling sites, which generally underlie thick stratigraphic deposits of later periods. The situation is somewhat different with regard to funerary archaeology, as North Africa, especially its eastern portion, is characterised by the existence of a surprising number and diversity of pre-Roman sepulchral monuments.
The previous chapter introduced the Garamantes, an ancient Saharan people, whose story can be traced archaeologically through the first millennium BC and first millennium AD (see also Figs 1.1and 1.2 for location maps). This chapter presents evidence on the funerary practices of the Garamantian heartlands in the Wadi al-Ajal in the Libyan Fazzan (Central Sahara). The Wadi al-Ajal is a long and thin oasis depression running for c.150 km from al-Abyad (to the south-west of Fazzan’s modern capital at Sabha) to Ubari. Our work has been particularly focused on the area around Jarma (ancient Garama, the Garamantian capital about 40 km east of Ubari). The burials in these Garamantian heartlands differ in certain significant ways from those recorded by the Italian mission at Aghram Nadharif and Fewet, and an interesting aspect of the discussion we shall develop below seeks to explain this difference.
Despite more than 150 years of archaeological research in the Maghrib and the Sahara, it is still difficult to establish a universally accepted chronological framework for Moroccan protohistory. While it is generally agreed that its beginning corresponds with the appearance of metal objects around the start of the third millennium BC, its end is much more imprecise, vague and uncertain. The Mediterranean littoral and its hinterland first entered written history around the eighth century BC, at the date of the earliest evidence for a Phoenician presence. However, the other continental regions of Morocco were not part of this schema. These areas were at the margins of ancient knowledge. During the centuries of the ‘Phoenician presence’, only the urban centres changed their character; the countryside, on the other hand, retained a protohistoric lifestyle.
Situated in the hinterland of the eastern Niger Bend in north-east Burkina Faso (Fig. 12.1), in the so-called Gourma area (that is, the bush-land on the right bank of the Niger River), the archaeological site of Kissi consists of an extensive cluster of adjacent settlement areas, including several burial grounds (Fig. 12.2). Its occupation during almost the whole Iron Age (c.third century BC to twelfth century AD) provides the opportunity to follow certain developments that local society underwent over more than a millennium. Spreading over an area of more than 300 hectares, the archaeological site lies on the northern shore of the Mare de Kissi (see Fig. 12.2), a small rainwater-fed lake, similar to – though smaller than – several other lakes in this region (that is, Mare d’Oursi c.35 km to the west, Mare de Darkoy c.6 km to the north, or Mare de Markoye c.15 km to the east, to name but the largest).
The Middle Nile (from Aswan in Egypt to Khartoum in Sudan, Fig. 6.1) is quite exceptional in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is a region where, from the beginning, archaeological frameworks have been constructed largely on the basis of cemetery excavations. This has, of course, much to do with regionally specific research histories and emergent archaeological practices associated with them. The traditions of materially rich mortuary cultures encountered in the Middle Nile, dating back to the early Neolithic period (here the sixth millennium BC), has continued to attract significant archaeological attention. Numerous, often large, cemeteries are still routinely being explored within the context of both research and rescue archaeology. Their material abundance continues to fascinate. The first extensive archaeological survey of Nubia, completed in 1911, excavated more than 8,200 graves in 151 cemeteries within a ‘survey’ area limited to the riverine oasis and covering an area of less than 250 km2.
This ground-breaking volume explores a series of inter-related key themes in Saharan archaeology and history. Migration and identity formation can both be approached from the perspective of funerary archaeology, using the combined evidence of burial structures, specific rites and funerary material culture, and integrated methods of skeletal analysis including morphometrics, palaeopathology and isotopes. Burial traditions from various parts of the Sahara are compared and contrasted with those of the Nile Valley, the Maghreb and West Africa. Several chapters deal with the related evidence of human migration derived from linguistic study. The volume presents the state of the field of funerary archaeology in the Sahara and its neighbouring regions and sets the agenda for future research on mobility, migration and identity. It will be a seminal reference point for Mediterranean and African archaeologists, historians and anthropologists as well as archaeologists interested in burial and migration more broadly.
Visual vertigo is defined as a condition in which there is worsening or triggering of vestibular symptoms in certain visual environments. Previous studies have associated visual vertigo with an increased prevalence of underlying white matter lesions on brain imaging.
This study evaluated the magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain from a cohort of patients with visual vertigo, and compared the outcomes to an age- and gender-matched group of healthy volunteers.
Results and conclusion
White matter lesions were observed in 17.9 per cent of the patient group and in 16.3 per cent of the control group. The prevalence of white matter lesions in the patient group was not too different to that expected based on age.
Phased Array Feed (PAF) technology is the next major advancement in radio astronomy in terms of combining high sensitivity and large field of view. The Focal L-band Array for the Green Bank Telescope (FLAG) is one of the most sensitive PAFs developed so far. It consists of 19 dual-polarization elements mounted on a prime focus dewar resulting in seven beams on the sky. Its unprecedented system temperature of ~17 K will lead to a 3 fold increase in pulsar survey speeds as compared to contemporary single pixel feeds. Early science observations were conducted in a recently concluded commissioning phase of the FLAG where we clearly demonstrated its science capabilities. We observed a selection of normal and millisecond pulsars and detected giant pulses from PSR B1937+21.
In the framework of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) Early Science Program, we obtained single-dish high-resolution imaging of the Supernova Remnants IC443 and W44 at 7 GHz. By coupling them with SRT 1.5 GHz maps, we provided spatially-resolved spectral measurements that are highlighting a spread in spectral slope distribution. The observed features range from flat or slightly inverted spectra corresponding to bright radio limbs and filaments, to relatively steep spectra in fainter radio regions. Different theoretical possibilities explaining the above challenging findings are discussed. In particular, we exclude that the observed region-dependent wide spread in spectral slope distribution could be related to absorption processes. Our high-frequency results can be directly related to distinct electron populations in the SNRs including secondary hadronic electrons and resulting from different shocks conditions and/or undergoing different cooling processes. Integrated fluxes associated with the whole SNRs obtained by SRT in comparison with previous results in the literature support the evidence for a slight spectral steepening above 1 GHz for both sources, which could be related to primary electrons or more likely secondary hadronic electrons cut-offs.