To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Social outings can trigger influenza transmission, especially in children and elderly. In contrast, school closures are associated with reduced influenza incidence in school-aged children. While influenza surveillance modelling studies typically account for holidays and mass gatherings, age-specific effects of school breaks, sporting events and commonly celebrated observances are not fully explored. We examined the impact of school holidays, social events and religious observances for six age groups (all ages, ⩽4, 5–24, 25–44, 45–64, ⩾65 years) on four influenza outcomes (tests, positives, influenza A and influenza B) as reported by the City of Milwaukee Health Department Laboratory, Milwaukee, Wisconsin from 2004 to 2009. We characterised holiday effects by analysing average weekly counts in negative binomial regression models controlling for weather and seasonal incidence fluctuations. We estimated age-specific annual peak timing and compared influenza outcomes before, during and after school breaks. During the 118 university holiday weeks, average weekly tests were lower than in 140 school term weeks (5.93 vs. 11.99 cases/week, P < 0.005). The dampening of tests during Winter Break was evident in all ages and in those 5–24 years (RR = 0.31; 95% CI 0.22–0.41 vs. RR = 0.14; 95% CI 0.09–0.22, respectively). A significant increase in tests was observed during Spring Break in 45–64 years old adults (RR = 2.12; 95% CI 1.14–3.96). Milwaukee Public Schools holiday breaks showed similar amplification and dampening effects. Overall, calendar effects depend on the proximity and alignment of an individual holiday to age-specific and influenza outcome-specific peak timing. Better quantification of individual holiday effects, tailored to specific age groups, should improve influenza prevention measures.
A 59-year-old man presented with confusion, decreased level of consciousness, and generalized tonic–clonic seizures. He was intubated and promptly stabilized on antiepileptic medications. He was not in status epilepticus. He improved after seizure control, though he remained confused. He was neither acutely intoxicated nor were there any substance withdrawal concerns prior to his presentation. Furthermore, no metabolic, electrolyte, or nutritional perturbations were identified. He did, however, have a history of alcoholic hepatitis and was awaiting a liver transplant, but his blood work did not reveal evidence of fulminant hepatic failure at presentation (international normalized ratio – 1.17, platelet count 161,000/µL, ammonia 18 µmol/L, blood urea nitrogen 4.5 mmol/L, and his liver enzymes were only remarkable for an elevated alkaline phosphatase of 143 U/L).
As survival rates and functional status of the adult single ventricle population have grown, some may become pregnant inadvertently or against our advice. The outcomes are often poor, being worse for the fetus/baby rather than the mother with a Fontan circuit. No reports of a successful delivery of a healthy baby to a Fontan mother with protein losing enteropathy were found in the literature. We present one such case.
Objective: To summarize the findings of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficacy and safety of vitamins and minerals for migraine prophylaxis. Methods: We systematically searched bibliographic databases and relevant websites for parallel and crossover RCTs reporting efficacy and/or safety of vitamins and/or minerals for migraine prophylaxis. Our primary outcomes were migraine frequency (number of attacks) and duration (hours). Secondary outcomes were severity (intensity), days with migraine, and adverse events. Meta-analysis was conducted when analyzable data were available from at least two trials. Results: Eighteen placebo-controlled trials met our eligibility criteria. Only coenzyme Q10 and magnesium contributed to meta-analyses. In adults, compared with placebo, coenzyme Q10 did not significantly decrease migraine frequency (mean difference (MD) −0.44 (−2.14 to 1.26); I2 53%; 2 trials; 97 participants; moderate strength of the evidence), duration (MD −1.97 (−4.82 to 0.87); I2 0%; 2 trials; 97 participants; moderate strength of the evidence), or severity (ratio of means (RoM) −0.05 (−0.20 to 0.11); I2 0%; 2 trials; 97 participants). In adults, compared with placebo, magnesium did not significantly decrease migraine severity (RoM −0.17 (−0.36 to 0.02); I2 48%; 3 trials; 226 participants; low strength of the evidence). Meta-analysis of other vitamins and minerals, and other outcomes were not feasible due to a lack of sufficiently reported data. Conclusions: Based on insufficient evidence, it is unknown if coenzyme Q10 and magnesium are effective for migraine prophylaxis in adults. High-quality, adequately powered RCTs are needed to fully evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamins and minerals for migraine prophylaxis.
The review article describes the composition, working, and benefits of the electrodynamic screen (EDS) film, a self-cleaning surface technology that can be retrofitted onto solar and thermal energy collectors. The EDS film avoids the use of water and robotic parts that are the common cleaning techniques used in solar/thermal power plants and thus emerges as a viable and scalable solution to the soiling problem faced recurrently by these plants. The article summarizes different experiments conducted to improve the efficiency of the EDS film in terms of reflectivity and performance. Field test results are also included to underscore the success of the EDS film operation.
Dust build-up or soiling on thermal and solar energy collector surfaces is a major problem and its cleaning is a major issue for solar energy conversion. Here, a self-cleaning technology is described as a scalable and viable solution to clear the surfaces. EDS film technology does not require water, manual labor, or moving parts to function, and the power needed to operate EDS is almost negligible and can be derived from the harvesting device itself. The EDS films thereby help mitigate the energy loss caused by soiling in solar and thermal harvesting systems. An EDS film with reflective or transparent electrodes can be retrofitted on concentrated solar power mirrors and on photovoltaic (PV) panels to sustain and aid their unhindered reflection and absorption of incident sunlight, respectively. We report experiments and describe methods used to increase the reflectivity of the electrodes of an EDS film. Results obtained from lab test setups and field test units that define the functionality, reflectivity, and stability of the electrodes on the EDS films are also presented. Field test results that compare and report the performance of PV panel output current over long periods of testing, with and without EDS films are also discussed. Test results from 3-month outdoor testing, which demonstrate recovery back to >95% of the pristine system, after decrease to 80–90% before EDS film activation, are also shown.
There is growing concern about the declining physician-scientist workforce. NIH recently provided a national dashboard describing the biomedical research workforce, but local strategies are needed.
We used curated local and national data to develop a workforce dashboard.
Many trends at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) were similar to those nationally, such as the increasing percentage of Research Project Grant (RPG)-holding PhDs and the aging RPG population, but differences were also apparent. At OHSU, nearly ¾ of physician-scientist RPGs hold MD-only, compared with nationally, where nearly half are MD/PhD. OHSU also lags in the percentage of RPGs held by women physician-scientists.
Our analysis also permitted us to gain a more complete picture of research funding that has been done nationally. We used these data to develop a dashboard that allows our institution to develop policies to increase the numbers of physician-scientists. The data generation approaches and dashboard are likely to be useful at other institutions, as well.
Abnormalities in reward circuit function are considered a core feature of addiction. Yet, it is still largely unknown whether these abnormalities stem from chronic drug use, a genetic predisposition, or both.
In the present study, we investigated this issue using a large sample of adolescent children by applying structural equation modeling to examine the effects of several dopaminergic polymorphisms of the D1 and D2 receptor type on the reward function of the ventral striatum (VS) and orbital frontal cortex (OFC), and whether this relationship predicted the propensity to engage in early alcohol misuse behaviors at 14 years of age and again at 16 years of age.
The results demonstrated a regional specificity with which the functional polymorphism rs686 of the D1 dopamine receptor (DRD1) gene and Taq1A of the ANKK1 gene influenced medial and lateral OFC activation during reward anticipation, respectively. Importantly, our path model revealed a significant indirect relationship between the rs686 of the DRD1 gene and early onset of alcohol misuse through a medial OFC × VS interaction.
These findings highlight the role of D1 and D2 in adjusting reward-related activations within the mesocorticolimbic circuitry, as well as in the susceptibility to early onset of alcohol misuse.
Introduction: Aeromedical helicopters and fixed wing aircraft are used across Canada to transfer patients to definitive care. Given height limitation in aeromedical transport, CPR performance can be affected. An adapted manual compression technique has been proposed by H. Koch (pron. Cook) that uses the elbow to compress the sternum rather than the conventional hand. This preliminary study evaluated the quality of Koch compressions versus conventional bimanual compressions. Methods: Paramedics (5), registered nurses (3) and a physician (1) were recruited. Each participant performed a 2 minute cycle of each technique, were randomized to determine which technique was performed first, and rested 5 minutes between compression cycles. A Resusci Anne SkillReporter manikin atop a stretcher in a BK117 helicopter was used. The compressors performed without feedback or prompting. Outcomes include compression rate, depth, recoil, and fatigue. Results: The mean conventional compression rate was (bpm) 118 +/− 13 versus 111 +/− 10 in the Koch scenario (p=0.02) (target 100 to 120). Mean conventional compression depth (mm) was 44 +/− 9 versus 49 +/− 7 in the Koch scenario (p=0.01) (target 50 to 60). The mean percentage of compressions with complete release in the conventional scenario was 86 +/− 20 versus 84 +/− 22 in the Koch scenario (p=0.9) (target 100%). Using a Modified Borg Scale of 1 to 10, mean provider fatigue after conventional CPR was 7 (+/− 1.6) versus 3 (+/− 1.2) using Koch technique (p<0.001). On average, Koch technique improved the percentage of compressions at target rate by 26%, the percentage at correct depth by 9%, overall compression quality score by 13% and were more less fatiguing. Conclusion: Using an elbow in a height-restricted environment improved compression depth and reduced provider fatigue. From our limited data, Koch compressions appear to improve compression quality. Further study and external validation are required.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the 10-year impact of Hurricane Katrina on the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) along with contributing risk factors and any alteration in chronobiology of AMI.
A single-center, retrospective, comparison study of AMI incidence was performed at Tulane University Health Sciences Center from 2 years before Hurricane Katrina to 10 years after Hurricane Katrina. A 6-year, pre-Katrina and 10-year, post-Katrina cohort were also compared according to pre-specified demographic, clinical, and chronobiological data.
AMI incidence increased from 0.7% (150/21,079) to 2.8% (2,341/84,751) post-Katrina (P<0.001). The post-Katrina cohort had higher rates of coronary artery disease (36.4% vs. 47.9%, P=0.01), diabetes mellitus (31.3% vs. 39.9%, P=0.04), hyperlipidemia (45.4% vs. 59.3%, P=0.005), smoking (34.4% vs. 53.8%, P<0.001), drug abuse (10.2% vs. 15.4%, P=0.02), psychiatric illness (6.7% vs. 14.9%, P<0.001), medication non-adherence (7.3% vs. 15.3%, P<0.001), and lack of employment (7.2% vs. 16.4%, P<0.001). The post-Katrina group had increased rates of AMI during nights (29.8% vs. 47.8%, P<0.001) and weekends (16.1% vs. 29.1%, P<0.001).
Even 10 years after the storm, Hurricane Katrina continues to be associated with increased incidence of AMI, higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular and psychosocial risk factors, and an altered chronobiology of AMI toward nights and weekends. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:217–222)
Parts of southern Belize are designated as a corridor for the jaguar Panthera onca but the Maya region remains understudied. We therefore studied jaguar habitat use, activity patterns, and interactions with people in Blue Creek, a Maya village in a human-dominated tropical landscape in southern Belize. We used camera traps to detect jaguar presence, and interviews to assess local people's attitudes to and perceptions of jaguars. We recorded 28 independent photographic events during 1,200 camera-trap nights (i.e. a relative abundance index of 2.3 jaguars per 100 trap days). Seven individual jaguars were identified. Jaguars preferred lowland broad-leaf tropical forest and were detected more often during daylight, in contrast to findings from previous studies. Attitudes towards jaguars were largely positive: 88% of respondents (n = 48) did not fear jaguars living around the village, and 81% understood the positive effect that jaguars have on the ecosystem. Although 92% of respondents reported seeing a jaguar within the previous 2 years, attacks on livestock in the village were rare, with only two occurrences in the previous 3 years. Ecotourism has grown rapidly in Belize in recent years, and Blue Creek is home to several natural tourist attractions and an eco-lodge that brings tourists, school groups, and researchers to the village. Ecotourism has provided an economic incentive for village investment in conservation, and 94% of respondents stated that preservation of wildlife, including jaguars, was beneficial to their well-being.
The clinical care of psychiatric patients is often guided by perceptions of suicide risk. The aim of this study was to examine the methods and results of studies reporting high-risk models for inpatient suicide.
We conducted a registered meta-analysis according to PRISMA guidelines. We searched for relevant peer-reviewed cohort and controlled studies indexed in Medline, EMBASE and PsychINFO.
The pooled odds ratio (OR) among 18 studies reporting high-risk models for inpatient suicide was 7.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.2–12.2]. Between-study heterogeneity in ORs was very high (range 0–94.8, first quartile 3.4, median 8.8, third quartile 26.1, prediction interval 0.80–63.1, I2 = 88.1%). The meta-analytically derived sensitivity was 53.1% (95% CI 38.2–67.5%, I2 = 95.9%) and specificity was 84.2% (95% CI 71.6–91.9%, I2 = 99.9%) with an associated meta-analytic area under the curve of 0.83. The positive predictive value of risk categorization among six cohort studies was 0.43% (95% CI 0.014–1.3%, I2 = 95.9%). A history of suicidal behavior and depressive symptoms or affective disorder was included in the majority of high-risk models.
Despite the strength of the pooled association between high-risk categorization and suicide, the very high degree of observed heterogeneity indicates uncertainty about our ability to meaningfully distinguish inpatients according to suicide risk. The limited sensitivity and low positive predictive value of risk categorization suggest that suicide risk models are not a suitable basis for clinical decisions in inpatient settings.
Evidence regarding the association between adolescent internalising symptoms and school non-completion has been limited and inconclusive.
To examine whether depressive and anxious symptoms at secondary school entry predict school non-completion beyond confounders and whether associations differ by baseline academic functioning.
We used logistic regression to examine associations between depressive and anxious symptoms in grade 7 (age 12–14) and school non-completion (age 18–20) in 4962 adolescents.
Depressive symptoms did not predict school non-completion after adjustment, but moderation analyses revealed an association in students with elevated academic functioning. A curvilinear association was found for anxiety: both low and high anxious symptoms predicted school non-completion, although only low anxiety remained predictive after adjustment.
Associations between internalising symptoms and school non-completion are modest. Common school-based interventions targeting internalising symptoms are unlikely to have a major impact on school non-completion, but may prevent non-completion in selected students.
The frequency dependence of normal pulsar radio emission is typically observed to be a power law, with some indications of a flattening or turnover at low frequencies (≲ 100 MHz). The spectrum of the Crab pulsar’s giant pulse emission has not been examined as closely. We conducted simultaneous wideband observations of the Crab pulsar, with the Parkes radio telescope and the Murchison Widefield Array, to study the spectral behaviour of its giant pulses. Our analysis shows that the mean spectral index of Crab giant pulses flattens at low frequencies, from −2.6 ± 0.5 between the Parkes bands, to −0.7 ± 1.4 between the lowest MWA subbands.
Deficits in social cognition may be among the most profound and disabling sequelae of paediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the neuroanatomical correlates of longitudinal outcomes in this domain remain unexplored. This study aimed to characterize social cognitive outcomes longitudinally after paediatric TBI, and to evaluate the use of sub-acute diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to predict these outcomes.
The sample included 52 children with mild complex-severe TBI who were assessed on cognitive theory of mind (ToM), pragmatic language and affective ToM at 6- and 24-months post-injury. For comparison, 43 typically developing controls (TDCs) of similar age and sex were recruited. DTI data were acquired sub-acutely (mean = 5.5 weeks post-injury) in a subset of 65 children (TBI = 35; TDC = 30) to evaluate longitudinal prospective relationships between white matter microstructure assessed using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics and social cognitive outcomes.
Whole brain voxel-wise analysis revealed significantly higher mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) in the sub-acute TBI group compared with TDC, with differences observed predominantly in the splenium of the corpus callosum (sCC), sagittal stratum (SS), dorsal cingulum (DC), uncinate fasciculus (UF) and middle and superior cerebellar peduncles (MCP & SCP, respectively). Relative to TDCs, children with TBI showed poorer cognitive ToM, affective ToM and pragmatic language at 6-months post-insult, and those deficits were related to abnormal diffusivity of the sCC, SS, DC, UF, MCP and SCP. Moreover, children with TBI showed poorer affective ToM and pragmatic language at 24-months post-injury, and those outcomes were predicted by sub-acute alterations in diffusivity of the DC and MCP.
Abnormal microstructure within frontal-temporal, limbic and cerebro-cerebellar white matter may be a risk factor for long-term social difficulties observed in children with TBI. DTI may have potential to unlock early prognostic markers of long-term social outcomes.
The current study examines the relation between distress tolerance, perceived stress, and internalizing symptoms across adolescence. Participants included 331 youth, ages 10 to 14 at the first wave of the study, assessed annually over 5 years. A latent growth curve approach was used to test three research questions, including whether perceived stress would increase across adolescence, whether distress tolerance (as measured by a behavioral task) would predict changes in perceived stress, and whether changes in perceived stress would mediate the relation between distress tolerance and internalizing symptoms. Results suggest that, consistent with previous findings, rates of perceived stress do increase across adolescence. Further, findings indicate that distress intolerance at baseline predicted increases in perceived stress, which in turn drove increases in internalizing symptoms. These findings point to the critical role of distress tolerance in bringing about changes in depression and anxiety symptoms and suggest support for utilizing a negative reinforcement framework to understand the emergence of internalizing symptomology.