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Energy density and safety are the main factors that govern the development of the rechargeable battery technology. Currently, batteries beyond typical Li-ion batteries such as those based on solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) or other active elements (e.g., Na or Mg) are being examined as alternatives. For example, SSEs that would enable stable and reliable operation of all-solid-state Li-, Na-, and Mg-based batteries, with preferably improved capacity, are considered to be one of the most desired inventions. Lightweight complex metal hydrides are a family of solid compounds that were recently discovered to have extraordinary ionic conductivities and, in some cases, electrochemical properties that enabled battery reversibility. Consequently, they have become one of the promising electrolyte materials for future development of electrochemical storage devices. In this work, we present an overview of a wide range of lightweight hydride-based materials that could be used as electrolytes and/or anodes for mono-/divalent batteries and have a pivotal role in the implementation of new technological solutions in the field of electrochemistry.
This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of primary care physicians (PCPs) in Lebanon regarding nutrition counseling and to investigate possible related barriers.
Nutrition counseling is an important aspect of patient care, especially with the increase in nutrition-related disorders.
This is a descriptive study among a convenience sample of PCPs in Lebanon at two annual conferences in 2014 using an anonymous questionnaire.
Response rate was 54.6%. Overall, physicians considered that they have good to very good nutritional knowledge. Although they rated their formal nutritional education poorly, they had a positive attitude towards nutritional counseling and reported practicing general nutritional counseling with their patients. Barriers to nutritional counseling were: time, perceived poor patient adherence to diet, gap in physician’s nutritional knowledge and lack of insurance coverage for dietitian fees. Changes should be made to medical education curricula to include nutrition courses related to prevalent health problems.
This study aimed to compare the reporting of high-resolution computed tomography of temporal bones for otosclerosis by general radiologists and a neuroradiologist within a local National Health Service Trust.
A retrospective case review of 36 high-resolution temporal bone computed tomography images obtained between 2008 and 2015 from 40 otosclerosis patients (surgically confirmed) was performed in a district general hospital setting. The main outcome measures were correct identification of otosclerosis by high-resolution computed tomography and adherence to the petrous temporal bone imaging protocol.
Correct diagnosis rates were significantly different when made by general radiologists vs a neuroradiologist (p < 0.0001; two-tailed Fisher's exact test). None of the high-resolution computed tomography scans adhered to the temporal bone imaging protocol.
The use of high-resolution computed tomography for suspected otosclerosis is helpful for diagnosis, disease staging, obtaining informed consent, surgical planning and prognosis. This study suggests that radiological detection of otosclerotic changes by high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone is significantly better when performed by a dedicated neuroradiologist than by a general radiologist. Use of a standardised temporal bone computed tomography protocol is recommended to provide consistently high-quality images for maximising disease detection.
The analysis of axial dispersion of solute is presented in a pulsatile flow of Casson fluid through a tube in the presence of interfacial mass transport due to irreversible first-order reaction catalysed by the tube wall. The theory of dispersion is studied by employing the generalized dispersion model proposed by Sankarasubramanian & Gill (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, vol. 333 (1592), 1973, pp. 115–132). This dispersion model describes the whole dispersion process in terms of three effective transport coefficients, i.e. exchange, convection and dispersion coefficients. In the present study, the effects of yield stress of Casson fluid
, wall absorption parameter
, amplitude of fluctuating pressure component
and Womersley frequency parameter
on the dispersion process are discussed under the influence of pulsatile pressure gradient. In a pulsatile flow, the plug flow radius changes during the period of oscillation and it has an effect on the dispersion process. Even with the Casson fluid model also, in an oscillatory flow, for small values of
, the dispersion coefficient
is positive, but when the value of
is as large as 3,
takes both positive and negative values due to the fluctuations in the velocity profiles. This nature becomes more predominant for
. It is observed that initially, for small time, the amplitude and magnitude of fluctuations of
becomes more rapid and increases with time but it decreases after certain time and reaches a non-transient state for large time. Like in the case of Newtonian model, double frequency period for
is observed at small time for large values of
with the Casson model for blood. It is seen that critical time for which
reaches a non-transient state is independent of
but is dependent on
. It is also observed that the axial distribution of mean concentration
of solute depends on
. But the effect of
is not very significant. This dispersion model in non-Newtonian pulsatile flow can be applied to study the dispersion process in the cardiovascular system and blood oxygenators.
Genetically modified (GM) plants expressing Bt toxin provide protection against lepidopteran pests. The only GM crop in Pakistan is Bt cotton, which was illegally imported and adopted rapidly by cotton producers. Farmers gained access to the seed of many unapproved Bt genotypes before the matter was picked up and formal approval granted by the relevant governmental agencies. The present study was conducted to evaluate the samples of Bt cotton, collected from farmers and seed dealer, for transgene integration and expression. Seeds of 52 cotton genotypes, labelled as Bt, were collected from various farmers and seed dealers. An immunoblot strip test was carried out, which showed that only 0·86 of the samples collected were synthesizing Cry1Ac toxin. According to multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results, 0·86 of the genotypes tested were positive for the Mon531 event (an ‘event’ is a specific genetic modification in a specific species) and 0·14 were negative for any transgene. Transcript analysis of transgenes in positive genotypes by real-time Rt-PCR confirmed the synthesis of mRNA in all genotypes but with significant variation. The concentration of Bt toxin revealed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that only 0·02 genotypes had the reported optimum level. The real-time PCR and ELISA results further confirmed the attenuation of transgene expression at transcriptional and translational level by various internal and external factors. The same type of event was found in all genotypes, with significant variation in toxin level, revealing the impact of genetic background on transgene expression. The findings support the recommendation to improve the existing quality criteria for transgenic cotton variety approval and certification in Pakistan, with the inclusion of toxin concentration in the list of parameters to be considered.
The predictive value of early functional improvement for treatment success at week 8 was assessed in a pooled analysis in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
Data were pooled from 7 double-blind studies in adult patients with MDD randomly assigned to desvenlafaxine 50 mg/d or placebo. Four levels of treatment success were determined at week 8 for patients with baseline Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) score > 12 (N = 2156): functional response (SDS ≤12 and ≥50% improvement in SDS), functional/depression response (SDS ≤12 and ≥50% improvement in both SDS and 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HAM-D17] score), functional remission (SDS < 7), and functional/depression remission (SDS < 7 and HAM-D17 ≤7). Week 2 improvement in SDS was evaluated as a predictor of later functional response/remission using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) of the predictability of improvement thresholds were computed from a logistic regression model.
The proportion of patients achieving each level of treatment success was significantly greater for patients treated with desvenlafaxine (40%, 32%, 23%, 15%, respectively) vs placebo (31%, 22%, 17%, 10%; all P ≤ 0.002). Early change in SDS was a highly significant predictor of functional response/remission (ORs, 0.958–0.970; all P < 0.0001).
Patients’ early functional response to desvenlafaxine 50 mg/d is predictive of treatment success.
Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have investigated the effect of embedding nanoclusters of radius 3-7 Å on the dynamical and mechanical properties of 1,4-cispolybutadiene melts. To see the effect of polymer-nanocluster interaction strength on the bulk modulus, the van der Waals interactions (vdW) between the polymer chain and nanocluster have been varied from weak to very stong while keeping polymer-polymer and nanoclusternanocluster interactions constant. The modulus depends on the interaction strength, but not on nanocluster size. Residence time of chains on the surface of the nanocluster (τr) has an increasing trend that reaches to a plateau as the vdW strength is increased. τr also doubles from 100 ps to 200 ps as the nanocluster size is increased from 3 to 7 Å. Our findings give clues on how the properties of polymeric materials may be controlled by nanoparticles of different chemistry and size.
Heat stress is associated with compromised performance and productivity in poultry due to declines in feed intake, nutrient utilisation, growth rate, egg production and quality, feed efficiency and immunity. Additionally, heat stress is characterised by reduced antioxidant status in birds, resulting in increased oxidative stress. Heat stress is also linked with increased economic losses due to mortality of birds. Vitamin E is a major chain-breaking antioxidant in biological systems. An optimum response with supplementation of vitamin E in feed has been found to improve feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency, egg production and quality, nutrient digestibility, immune response and antioxidant status in poultry birds. This work compiles past and present information about the role of vitamin E in heat-stressed poultry.
To determine the mortality, hospital stay, and total hospital charges and cost of hospitalization attributable to candidemia by comparing patients with candidemia with control-patients who have otherwise similar illnesses. Prior studies lack broad patient and hospital representation or cost-related information that accurately reflects current medical practices.
Our case-control study included case-patients with candidemia and their cost-related data, ascertained from laboratory-based candidemia surveillance conducted among all residents of Connecticut and Baltimore and Baltimore County, Maryland, during 1998 to 2000. Control-patients were matched on age, hospital type, admission year, discharge diagnoses, and duration of hospitalization prior to candidemia onset.
We identified 214 and 529 sets of matched case-patients and control-patients from the two locations, respectively. Mortality attributable to candidemia ranged between 19% and 24%. On multivariable analysis, candidemia was associated with mortality (OR, 5.3 for Connecticut and 8.5 for Baltimore and Baltimore County; P < .05), whereas receiving adequate treatment was protective (OR, 0.5 and 0.4 for the two locations, respectively; P < .05). Candidemia itself did not increase the total hospital charges and cost of hospitalization; when treatment status was accounted for, having received adequate treatment for candidemia significantly increased the total hospital charges and cost of hospitalization ($6,000 to $29,000 and $3,000 to $22,000, respectively) and the length of stay (3 to 13 days).
Our findings underscore the burden of candidemia, particularly regarding the risk of death, length of hospitalization, and cost associated with treatment (Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005;26:540-547).
Temperature dependant I-V characteristics were measured on single-crystalline Si (c-Si) TFTs fabricated inside a location-controlled grain by [.proportional]-Czochralski process using an excimer-laser. At ON-state, temperature the activation energy (Ea) of the drain current drops to a negative value. The field effect mobility ([.proportional]FE) also decreases with temperature with a power of -1.86, which indicates that, the carriers transport are governed by acoustic phonon scattering. At OFF state with a small gate bias, leakage current is dominated by thermal generation, however the Ea was 0.9eV, i.e., near the band gap value of Si. This suggests that the carrier generation centers are not located at the mid-gap states. These distinctive results from a typical poly-Si TFTs are systematically investigated for c-Si TFTs having ECR- PECVD and LPCVD SiO2 gate insulator.
Experimental investigations are presented regarding the surface-selective molecular selfassembly of fluorinated monochloroalkylsilane of the type (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrodecyl) dimethylchlorosilane (denoted F17) on silicon dioxide (SiO2) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) surfaces. The goal is to investigate the controlled and selective surface self-assembly of these molecules as a potential route for substrate-selective covalent bonding of complex molecular assemblies to semiconductor substrates for on-chip interconnect and device applications. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), x-ray reflectivity (XRR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to investigate the selectivity of the F17 self-assembly. Contrary to previous reported results, a high degree of F17 monolayer attachment selectivity is consistently observed between SiO2 and Si3N4 substrates for all three of the aforementioned monolayer characterization methods.
The pleura is host to many diseases, some systemic, others spreading from the underlying lung. Lung carcinoma metastases are the commonest lesions seen by pathologists. The most frequent cause of pleural problems is an effusion, secondary to congestive cardiac failure. This chapter will consider normal pleural physiology, as well as benign and malignant processes.
The pleural space, separating the lung and chest wall, contains a small amount of liquid that lubricates the pleural surfaces during breathing (see Chapter 1). The volume of fluid in the pleural space is small, in the range of 0.2–0.5 ml. Normally, the protein and cellular content is low, with no inflammatory cells. The thin layer of liquid between the pleural surfaces has the important function of providing mechanical coupling between the chest wall and lung. For this connection to be effective, the volume of pleural liquid required for lubrication must be kept to a minimum. In addition, the colloid osmotic pressure must be low to keep this volume small. This fluid ensures instantaneous transmission of perpendicular forces between the two structures, and allows their sliding movement in response to shearing forces.
As memory continues to be scaled to ever smaller dimensions, the floating-gate memory transistor, which offers a single-element storage cell, becomes more attractive. Typically, this structure has been reserved for nonvolatile applications, where the comparatively high voltages, slow write speeds, and limited cyclability could be tolerated. However, if the floating-gate, which is usually a continuous film of polysilicon, is replaced with a discontinuous film of small floating islands (nano-crystals), a new set of tradeoffs in these performance factors becomes possible, opening the door to broader applications. If these islands are further reduced to the point where Coulomb charging or energy quantization effects become relevant, it is possible to control the charge on the islands at a single (or few) electron level, which offers very low power operation and may enable new functionality. This paper will discuss design and fabrication of these memories, experimental results on fabricated devices, and modeling of what could ultimately be achieved, as well as what limitations will ultimately be reached.
The results on the influence of growing various crops in five fixed annual sequences on the changes in available and total phosphorus and potassium content of a Tolewal sandy loam (Typic Ustipsamment) are reported. The available phosphorus content showed an increase in each of the five crop rotations after completion of two cycles. The maximum increase was observed in groundnut-based cropping sequences whereas the increase under the other three rotations was more or less of the same order. A slight decrease in the available P content during the 3rd year was observed after the harvest of bajra in a bajra fodder–potato–wheat sequence which was replenished after the harvest of potato and wheat. Total P content of the soil also showed an increase in all five rotations after completion of two cycles. A decrease in total P content of the soil was also observed after the bajra harvest. Balance sheet of P indicated net gain of P in all five crop rotations and the maximum gain of 62 kg P/ha was observed in the maize–wheat–moong rotation. Theavailable K status of the soil showed an increase in each of the five cropping sequences after completion of two cycles. The available K status after harvest of various crops in the rotation could not fully explain the dynamics of K availability. The total soil K content indicated a negative K balance in each of the five crop rotations after completion of three cycles and the maximum negative balance occurred in a maize–wheat–moong sequence. The negative K balance was related to the amount of fertilizer K added and that removed by the crops. The results suggested the need for modifying the existing K fertilizer recommendations to compensate gradual loss of native K soil fertility.
In the last two decades significant progress has been made in understanding the factors and processes affecting the K requirement of crops. Simultaneously analytical techniques to study the behaviour of K in soil have been developed, on the understanding that soil controls the supply of nutrients to crop plants by adsorbing and sometimes fixing nutrients. As in solution culture, the concentration of K in the soil solution governs the uptake of K by plants. The soil matrix serves as a reservoir from which the soil solution is replenished. Monitoring K status of the soil solution under fixed crop sequences can provide a useful basis for improving fertilizer recommendations. Kconcentrations in the soil solution have, therefore, been measured on a soil in which a number of crops have been grown in fixed annual sequences in field experiments.
The results on the influence of various crops in five different fixed rotations on the ohanges in nitrate and total N content of soils are reported. Groundnut contributed largely to the accumulation of nitrate nitrogen in the soil profile (to a depth of 120 cm). Bajra fodder exhausted the soil nitrogen reserve to a great extent. Wheat and maize, in a rotation, reduced nitrate leaching to deeper soil layers. Summer moong also left a large amount of unabsorbed nitrate in the profile. Total nitrogen content of the soil decreased after the harvest of cereals. Maximum depletion occurred after the harvest of bajra crop. Potato (a crop which received a heavy dressing of N fertilizer) and legumes contributed to the soil N reserve. A balance sheet of N indicated net gains of total soil N in four of the five cropping sequences. A net loss of 75 kg N/ha was observed in bajra fodder-potato-wheat rotation.