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The community composition of zooplankton with an emphasis on copepods was assessed in the frontal zones of the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean (SO) during summer 2013. Copepods were the dominant group in both the bongo net and multiple plankton sampler across the entire region. High zooplankton abundance was recorded along each transect in the Polar Front (PF). Community structure in this front was dominated by common taxa, including Ctenocalanus citer, Clausocalanus spp., Calanoides acutus, Calanus propinquus, Calanus australis and Rhincalanus gigas, which together accounted for > 62% of the total abundance. Calocalanus spp., Neocalanus tonsus and C. propinquus were indicator species in the Sub-Tropical Front (STF), Sub-Antarctic Front and PF, respectively. A strong contrast in population structure and biovolume was observed between then PF and the STF. The community structure of smaller copepods was associated with the high-temperature region, whereas communities of larger copepods were associated with the low-temperature region. Thus, it seems probable that physical and biological characteristics of the SO frontal regions are controlling the abundance and distribution of zooplankton community structure by restricting some species to the warmer stratified zones and some species to the well-mixed zone.
Malacca Portuguese Creole (MPC) (ISO 639-3; code: mcm), popularly known as Malacca Portuguese or locally as (Papiá) Cristang, belongs to the group of Portuguese-lexified creoles of (South)east Asia, which includes the extinct varieties of Batavia/Tugu (Maurer 2013) and Bidau, East Timor (Baxter 1990), and the moribund variety of Macau (Baxter 2009). MPC has its origins in the Portuguese presence in Malacca, and like the other creoles in this subset, it is genetically related to the Portuguese Creoles of South Asia (Holm 1988, Cardoso, Baxter & Nunes 2012).
To validate a newly introduced cartilage rim augmented temporalis fascia tympanoplasty technique by statistically comparing it with the morphological and audiological outcomes of traditional temporalis fascia tympanoplasty.
A retrospective comparative study was conducted on 115 patients who underwent tympanoplasty during 2013 and 2015. Fifty-eight patients underwent temporalis fascia tympanoplasty and 57 underwent cartilage rim augmented fascia tympanoplasty.
In the cartilage fascia group, graft healing was achieved in 94.7 per cent of cases; in the temporalis fascia group, the graft take-up rate was 70 per cent. In those with a normal ossicular chain, the post-operative air–bone gap was within 20 dB in 92.6 per cent of cartilage fascia group cases and in 69.7 per cent of the temporalis fascia group cases, which was a statistically significant difference. Among the defective ossicular chain cases, the post-operative air–bone gap was within 20 dB in 76.9 per cent in the cartilage fascia group, as against 57.1 per cent in the temporalis fascia group.
Cartilage rim augmented temporalis fascia tympanoplasty has a definite advantage over the temporalis fascia technique in terms of superior graft take up and statistically significant hearing gain in those with normal ossicular mobility.
Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) regimes for HIV are associated with raised levels of circulating triglycerides (TGs) in western populations. However, there are limited data on the impact of ART on cardiometabolic risk in sub-Saharan African (SSA) populations.
Pooled analyses of 14 studies comprising 21 023 individuals, on whom relevant cardiometabolic risk factors (including TG), HIV and ART status were assessed between 2003 and 2014, in SSA. The association between ART and raised TG (>2.3 mmol/L) was analysed using regression models.
Among 10 615 individuals, ART was associated with a two-fold higher probability of raised TG (RR 2.05, 95% CI 1.51–2.77, I2 = 45.2%). The associations between ART and raised blood pressure, glucose, HbA1c, and other lipids were inconsistent across studies.
Evidence from this study confirms the association of ART with raised TG in SSA populations. Given the possible causal effect of raised TG on cardiovascular disease (CVD), the evidence highlights the need for prospective studies to clarify the impact of long term ART on CVD outcomes in SSA.
The Central Molecular Zone (CMZ), usually referring to the inner 500 pc of the Galaxy, contains a dozen of massive (~105M⊙) molecular clouds. Are these clouds going to actively form stars like Sgr B2? How are they affected by the extreme physical conditions in the CMZ, such as strong turbulence? Here we present a first step towards answering these questions. Using high-sensitivity, high angular resolution radio and (sub)millimeter observations, we studied deeply embedded star formation in six massive clouds in the CMZ, including the 20 and 50 km s−1 clouds, Sgr B1 off (as known as dust ridge clouds e/f), Sgr C, Sgr D, and G0.253 – 0.016. The VLA water maser observations suggest a population of deeply embedded protostellar candidates, many of which are new detections. The SMA 1.3 mm continuum observations reveal peaks in dust emission associated with the masers, suggesting the existence of dense cores. While our findings confirm that clouds such as G0.253 – 0.016 lack internal compact substructures and are quiescent in terms of star formation, two clouds (the 20 km s−1 cloud and Sgr C) stand out with clusters of water masers with associated dense cores which may suggest a population of deeply embedded protostars at early evolutionary phases. Follow-up observations with VLA and ALMA are necessary to confirm their protostellar nature.
The inner few hundred parsecs of the Milky Way, the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ), is our closest laboratory for understanding star formation in the extreme environments (hot, dense, turbulent gas) that once dominated the universe. We present an update on the first large-area survey to expose the sites of star formation across the CMZ at high-resolution in submillimeter wavelengths: the CMZoom survey with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). We identify the locations of dense cores and search for signatures of embedded star formation. CMZoom is a three-year survey in its final year and is mapping out the highest column density regions of the CMZ in dust continuum and a variety of spectral lines around 1.3 mm. CMZoom combines SMA compact and subcompact configurations with single-dish data from BGPS and the APEX telescope, achieving an angular resolution of about 4″ (0.2 pc) and good image fidelity up to large spatial scales.
The molecular clouds in the Central Molecular Zone of our Galaxy (CMZ; inner ~200 pc) show systematically higher gas than dust temperatures (>50 K vs <30 K) in recent H2CO line and dust continuum surveys. This discrepancy is puzzling since gas and dust temperatures should become equal over short times at the high densities observed in these clouds. In deep H2CO(3–2) and (4–3) observations of seven clouds in the CMZ, we detected not only large temperature differences between the clouds but also large gradients within the clouds. Comparing the temperatures and the main H2CO lines at 218 and 291 GHz, we found a positive correlation between those two parameters, indicating that turbulence plays an important role in the heating of the gas. As a follow-up, we mapped the temperature tracers CH3CCH and CH3CN in these seven clouds to derive multiple temperature estimates and test the accuracy of high gas temperatures.
Africa is experiencing a rapid increase in adult obesity and associated cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs). The H3Africa AWI-Gen Collaborative Centre was established to examine genomic and environmental factors that influence body composition, body fat distribution and CMD risk, with the aim to provide insights towards effective treatment and intervention strategies. It provides a research platform of over 10 500 participants, 40–60 years old, from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya and South Africa. Following a process that involved community engagement, training of project staff and participant informed consent, participants were administered detailed questionnaires, anthropometric measurements were taken and biospecimens collected. This generated a wealth of demographic, health history, environmental, behavioural and biomarker data. The H3Africa SNP array will be used for genome-wide association studies. AWI-Gen is building capacity to perform large epidemiological, genomic and epigenomic studies across several African counties and strives to become a valuable resource for research collaborations in Africa.
There is limited evidence and lack of consensus whether second-hand smoke (SHS) increases risk of tuberculosis (TB), which has substantial implications for unrestricted smoking indoors and TB control policies. We aimed to establish the association between SHS and the risk of acquiring and worsening of TB in non-smokers. We identified 428 articles in the initial search and 12 comparative epidemiological studies met our inclusion criteria. Exposure to SHS was found to have a higher risk of TB infection [risk ratio (RR) 1·19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·90–1·57] compared to non-exposure; however, this did not reach statistical significance. There was marked variability (I2 = 74%, P = 0·0008) between studies’ results, which could be explained by the differences in the diagnostic criteria used. Exposure to SHS was found to be statistically significantly associated (RR 1·59, 95% CI 1·11–2·27) with the risk of TB disease. There was significant heterogeneity (I2 = 77%, P = 0·0006) between studies’ results, which was sourced to the internal characteristics of the studies rather than combining different study designs. We did not find any studies for SHS and TB treatment-related outcomes. Thus, we conclude that SHS exposure may increase the risk of acquiring TB infection and progression to TB disease; however, the evidence remains scanty and weak.
Graduate entry medical students’ views of psychiatry may differ from those of school leavers. This study hypothesised that (i) exposure to a psychiatry attachment is associated with a positive change in attitudes towards psychiatry in both graduate entry and non-graduate entry students, (ii) graduate entry students exhibit a more positive attitude to psychiatry compared to non-graduate entry students and (iii) graduate entry students are more interested in a career in psychiatry than non-graduate entry students.
In this study 247 medical students (118 females and 129 males) completing their psychiatry rotation were invited to complete questionnaires examining career choice, attitudes to psychiatry and career attractiveness for a range of specialties including surgery, medicine, general practice and psychiatry before and after their psychiatry attachment. Questionnaires were distributed prior to commencement of their attachment and redistributed on the final day of the attachment.
Of the 165 participants in the study, 75 students entered medicine via the traditional route (without a primary degree), 49 entered via the graduate entry programme and 41 had a primary degree. Overall, medical students displayed positive attitudes towards psychiatry. However, while there was an improvement in attitudes towards psychiatry and the career attractiveness of psychiatry on completion of the rotation, no differences were found between graduate and non-graduate entry students. Psychiatry and general practice had lower ratings for career attractiveness than other specialities. No significant changes were found in the first and second choice of specialty.
Our results show that improvements in attitude and career attractiveness do not necessarily correlate with increased choice of psychiatry as a specialty. Graduate entry has been considered a possible opportunity for increasing recruitment in psychiatry but our results suggest that this may not be the case. Follow-up studies are required to determine whether career attractiveness correlates with future career choice.
An analysis was undertaken to measure age-specific vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 2010/11 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) and monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine (PIV) administered in 2009/2010. The test-negative case-control study design was employed based on patients consulting primary care. Overall TIV effectiveness, adjusted for age and month, against confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm 2009 infection was 56% (95% CI 42–66); age-specific adjusted VE was 87% (95% CI 45–97) in <5-year-olds and 84% (95% CI 27–97) in 5- to 14-year-olds. Adjusted VE for PIV was only 28% (95% CI −6 to 51) overall and 72% (95% CI 15–91) in <5-year-olds. For confirmed influenza B infection, TIV effectiveness was 57% (95% CI 42–68) and in 5- to 14-year-olds 75% (95% CI 32–91). TIV provided moderate protection against the main circulating strains in 2010/2011, with higher protection in children. PIV administered during the previous season provided residual protection after 1 year, particularly in the <5 years age group.
National guidelines for the assessment and treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder were published in 2005 by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Local services are unable to treat a small but significant number of the most severely ill patients successfully, and the guidelines recommend that such patients should have access to highly specialised care. From 1 April 2007, the Department of Health decided to centrally fund treatment services for severe, chronic, refractory OCD and BDD. We describe a new National Service for Refractory OCD; its rationale, treatments offered, referral criteria and expected clinical outcomes.
Initial results from one centre show an average 42% reduction in OCD symptoms at the end of treatment.
The operational challenges and potential generalisability of this model of healthcare delivery are discussed. We present a summary of the progress made so far in establishing a new, coherent National Service for Refractory OCD, 18 months after the NICE guideline was published. the aim of the paper is to educate clinicians about the service and describe its rationale, treatments offered, referral criteria and expected clinical outcomes.
Fourteen strains of S. Typhi (n=13) and S. Paratyphi A (n=1) resistant to ciprofloxacin were compared with 30 ciprofloxacin decreased-susceptibility strains on the basis of qnr plasmid analysis, and nucleotide substitutions at gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE. In ciprofloxacin-resistant strains, five S. Typhi and a single S. Paratyphi A showed triple mutations in gyrA (Ser83→Phe, Asp87→Asn, Glu133→Gly) and a novel mutation outside the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) (Met52→Leu). Novel mutations were also discovered in an isolate (minimum inhibitory concentration 8 μg/ml) in gyrA gene Asp76→Asn and outside the QRDR Leu44→Ile. Out of 30 isolates with reduced susceptibility, single mutation was found in 12 strains only. Genes encoding qnr plasmid (qnr A, qnr B, AAC1-F) were not detected in ciprofloxacin-resistant or decreased-susceptibility strains. Antimicrobial surveillance coupled with molecular analysis of fluoroquinolone resistance is warranted for reconfirming novel and established molecular patterns of resistance, which is quintessential for reappraisal of enteric fever therapeutics.
Antibiotic-encapsulated PLA and PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by the single emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. Different PLA and PLGA systems were prepared, varying the copolymer composition and the amount of the surfactant polyvinyl alcohol. Characterization and drug loading studies were performed by UV-Visible spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Simultaneously, in order to model the diffusion of the nanoparticles within the osteoblast, QDs such as functionalized InGaP/ZnS and polymer encapsulated InGaP/ZnS nanoparticles were added to confluent cultures of primary mouse osteoblasts. Following PreFer fixation, cultures were examined via confocal microscopy. QDs were clearly visible within osteoblasts.
Reproduction and postnatal development of the southern African bush Karoo rat Otomys unisulcatus was studied in the laboratory. Fifty-one litters were obtained from 17 pairs, with a mean litter size of 2.09, reproductive effort of 0.58 and gestation period of 37 days. Neonates weighed 6.1–9.6 g and were semi-precocial. Weaning began as early as 8 days of age, and the age at first reproduction was 6 weeks in males and 5 weeks in females. Compared to its congeners, O. unisulcatus has small litters of semi-precocial young which undergo rapid postnatal development, and contrary to expectations displays several K-selected reproductive characteristics. The reproductive biology and postnatal development of the bush Karoo appears to reflect a compromise between exploiting sporadically abundant resources and the occupation of stick lodges, which may provide a favourable microclimate to buffer the harsh external climate.
Sandwich composites find increasing use as flexural load bearing lightweight sub-elements in air / space vehicles, rail / ground transportation, marine and sporting goods. The core materials in these applications is usually balsa, foam or honeycombs, while laminated carbon or glass are used as facesheets. A limitation of traditional sandwich configurations is that the space in the core becomes inaccessible once the facesheets are bonded in place. Significant multi-functional benefits can be obtained by making either the facesheets or the core, space accessible. Multi-functionality is generally referred to as value added to the structure that enhances functions beyond traditional load bearing. Such functions may include sound / vibration damping, ability to route wires or embed sensors. The present work considers traditional core materials of nomex and aluminum honeycombs that possess functional space accessible facesheets, and their low velocity impact (LVI) response.