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The Numeniini is a tribe of 13 wader species (Scolopacidae, Charadriiformes) of which seven are Near Threatened or globally threatened, including two Critically Endangered. To help inform conservation management and policy responses, we present the results of an expert assessment of the threats that members of this taxonomic group face across migratory flyways. Most threats are increasing in intensity, particularly in non-breeding areas, where habitat loss resulting from residential and commercial development, aquaculture, mining, transport, disturbance, problematic invasive species, pollution and climate change were regarded as having the greatest detrimental impact. Fewer threats (mining, disturbance, problematic native species and climate change) were identified as widely affecting breeding areas. Numeniini populations face the greatest number of non-breeding threats in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, especially those associated with coastal reclamation; related threats were also identified across the Central and Atlantic Americas, and East Atlantic flyways. Threats on the breeding grounds were greatest in Central and Atlantic Americas, East Atlantic and West Asian flyways. Three priority actions were associated with monitoring and research: to monitor breeding population trends (which for species breeding in remote areas may best be achieved through surveys at key non-breeding sites), to deploy tracking technologies to identify migratory connectivity, and to monitor land-cover change across breeding and non-breeding areas. Two priority actions were focused on conservation and policy responses: to identify and effectively protect key non-breeding sites across all flyways (particularly in the East Asian- Australasian Flyway), and to implement successful conservation interventions at a sufficient scale across human-dominated landscapes for species’ recovery to be achieved. If implemented urgently, these measures in combination have the potential to alter the current population declines of many Numeniini species and provide a template for the conservation of other groups of threatened species.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
Heat stress (HS) jeopardizes livestock health and productivity and both may in part be mediated by reduced intestinal integrity. Dietary zinc improves a variety of bowel diseases, which are characterized by increased intestinal permeability. Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of supplemental zinc amino acid complex (ZnAA) on intestinal integrity in heat-stressed growing pigs. Crossbred gilts (43±6 kg BW) were ad libitum fed one of three diets: (1) control (ZnC; 120 ppm Zn as ZnSO4; n=13), (2) control+100 ppm Zn as ZnAA (Zn220; containing a total of 220 ppm Zn; n=14), and (3) control+200 ppm Zn as ZnAA (Zn320; containing a total of 320 ppm Zn; n=16). After 25 days on their respective diets, all pigs were exposed to constant HS conditions (36°C, ∼50% humidity) for either 1 or 7 days. At the end of the environmental exposure, pigs were euthanized and blood and intestinal tissues were harvested immediately after sacrifice. As expected, HS increased rectal temperature (P⩽0.01; 40.23°C v. 38.93°C) and respiratory rate (P⩽0.01; 113 v. 36 bpm). Pigs receiving ZnAA tended to have increased rectal temperature (P=0.07; +0.27°C) compared with ZnC-fed pigs. HS markedly reduced feed intake (FI; P⩽0.01; 59%) and caused BW loss (2.10 kg), but neither variable was affected by dietary treatment. Fresh intestinal segments were assessed ex vivo for intestinal integrity. As HS progressed from days 1 to 7, both ileal and colonic transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) decreased (P⩽0.05; 34% and 22%, respectively). This was mirrored by an increase in ileal and colonic permeability to the macromolecule dextran (P⩽0.01; 13- and 56-fold, respectively), and increased colonic lipopolysaccharide permeability (P⩽0.05; threefold) with time. There was a quadratic response (P⩽0.05) to increasing ZnAA on ileal TER, as it was improved (P⩽0.05; 56%) in Zn220-fed pigs compared with ZnC. This study demonstrates that HS progressively compromises the intestinal barrier and supplementing ZnAA at the appropriate dose can improve aspects of small intestinal integrity during severe HS.
A useful result when dealing with backward stochastic differential equations is the comparison theorem of Peng (1992). When the equations are not based on Brownian motion, the comparison theorem no longer holds in general. In this paper we present a condition for a comparison theorem to hold for backward stochastic differential equations based on arbitrary martingales. This theorem applies to both vector and scalar situations. Applications to the theory of nonlinear expectations are also explored.
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 (basic) is a potent angiogenic molecule involved in tumor progression, and is one of several growth factors with a central role in ovarian carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FGF2 gene may alter angiogenic potential and thereby susceptibility to ovarian cancer. We analyzed 25 FGF2 tgSNPs using five independent study populations from the United States and Australia. Analysis was restricted to non-Hispanic White women with serous ovarian carcinoma (1269 cases and 2829 controls). There were no statistically significant associations between any FGF2 SNPs and ovarian cancer risk. There were two nominally statistically significant associations between heterozygosity for two FGF2 SNPs (rs308379 and rs308447; p < .05) and serous ovarian cancer risk in the combined dataset, but rare homozygous estimates did not achieve statistical significance, nor were they consistent with the log additive model of inheritance. Overall genetic variation in FGF2 does not appear to play a role in susceptibility to ovarian cancer.
In 1990, Fontan, Kirklin, and colleagues published equations for survival after the so-called “Perfect Fontan” operation. After 1988, we evolved a protocol using an internal or external polytetraflouroethylene tube of 16 to 19 millimetres diameter placed from the inferior caval vein to either the right or left pulmonary artery along with a bidirectional cava-pulmonary connection. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that a “perfect” outcome is routinely achievable in the current era when using a standardized surgical procedure.
Between 1 January, 1988, and 12 December, 2005, 112 patients underwent the Fontan procedure using an internal or external polytetraflouroethylene tube plus a bidirectional cava-pulmonary connection, the latter usually having been constructed as a previous procedure. This constituted 45% of our overall experience in constructing the Fontan circulation between 1988 and 1996, and 96% of the experience between 1996 and 2005. Among all surviving patients, the median follow-up was 7.3 years. We calculated the expected survival for an optimal candidate, given from the initial equations, and compared this to our entire experience in constructing the Fontan circulation.
An internal tube was utilized in 61 patients, 97% of whom were operated prior to 1998, and an external tube in 51 patients, the latter accounting for 95% of all operations since 1999. At 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, survival of the entire cohort receiving polytetraflouroethylene tubes is superimposable on the curve calculated for a “perfect” outcome. Freedom from replacement or revision of the tube was 97% at 10 years.
Using a standardized operative procedure, combining a bidirectional cavopulmonary connection with a polytetraflouroethylene tube placed from the inferior caval vein to the pulmonary arteries for nearly all patients with functionally univentricular hearts, early and late survival within the “perfect” outcome as predicted by the initial equations of Fontan and Kirklin is routinely achievable in the current era. The need for late revision or replacement of the tube is rare.
This study assessed risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization and disease severity in Wellington, New Zealand. During the southern hemisphere winter months of 2003–2005, 230 infants aged <24 months hospitalized with bronchiolitis were recruited. RSV was identified in 141 (61%) infants. Comparison with data from all live hospital births from the same region (2003–2005) revealed three independent risk factors for RSV hospitalization: birth between February and July [adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1·62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·15–2·29], gestation <37 weeks (aRR 2·29, 95% CI 1·48–3·56) and Māori ethnicity (aRR 3·64, 95% CI 2·27–5·85) or Pacific ethnicity (aRR 3·60, 95% CI 2·14–6·06). The high risk for Māori and Pacific infants was only partially accounted for by other known risk factors. This work highlights the importance of RSV disease in indigenous and minority populations, and identifies the need for further research to develop public health measures that can reduce health disparities.
Carbonatite magmas are considered to be ultimately derived from mantle sources, which may include lithospheric and asthenospheric reservoirs. Isotopic studies of carbonatite magmatism around the globe have typically suggested that more than one source needs to be invoked for generation of the parental melts to carbonatites, often involving the interaction of asthenosphere and lithosphere.
In the rift-related, Proterozoic Gardar Igneous Province of SW Greenland, carbonatite occurs as dykes within the Igaliko Nepheline Syenite Complex, as eruptive rocks and diatremes at Qassiarsuk, as a late plug associated with nepheline syenite at Grønnedal-Íka, and as small bodies associated with ultramafic lamprophyre dykes. The well-known cryolite deposit at Ivittuut was also rich in magmatic carbonate. The carbonatites are derived from the mantle with relatively little crustal contamination, and therefore should provide important information about the mantle sources of Gardar magmas. In particular, they are found intruded both into Archaean and Proterozoic crust, and hence provide a test for the involvement of lithospheric mantle.
A synthesis of new and previously published major and trace element, Sr, Nd, C and O isotope data for carbonatites and associated lamprophyres from the Gardar Province is presented. The majority of Gardar carbonatites and lamprophyres have consistent geochemical and isotopic signatures that are similar to those typically found in ocean island basalts. The geochemical characteristics of the two suites of magmas are similar enough to suggest that they were derived from the same mantle source. C and O isotope data are also consistent with a mantle derivation for the carbonatite magmas, and support the theory of a cogenetic origin for the carbonatites and the lamprophyres. The differences between the carbonatites and lamprophyres are considered to represent differing degrees of partial melting of a similar source.We suggest that the ultimate source of these magmas is the asthenospheric mantle, since there is no geochemical or isotopic evidence for their having been derived directly from ancient, enriched sub-continental lithospheric mantle. However, it is likely that the magmas actually formed through a two-stage process, with small-degree volatile-rich partial melts rising from the asthenospheric mantle and being ‘frozen in’ as metasomites, which were then rapidly remobilized during Gardar rifting.
A quasi-trapezoid inequality is derived for double integrals that strengthens considerably existing results. A consonant version of the Grüss inequality is also derived. Applications are made to cubature formulæ and the error variance of a stationary variogram.
The terrestrial orchid genus
Bhutanthera Renz (subfamily Orchidoideae, tribe Orchideae), comprising five
species, three newly described here, is established. A new species, Herminium pygmaeum Renz,
and three new varieties, Bulbophyllum cauliflorum Hook.f. var. sikkimense N. Pearce
& P. J. Cribb, Cephalanthera erecta (Thunb.) Bl. var. oblanceolata N. Pearce
& P. J. Cribb, and Gymnadenia orchidis Lindl. var. pantlingii Renz, are here
newly described. Five new combinations and one new name are proposed. Four new sections of
Bulbophyllum are also established and their relationships
Three new species of Bhutanese orchids, Aphyllorchis sanguinea, Cheirostylis sherriffii and Hetaeria pelota, and one new Sikkimese species, Lecanorchis sikkimensis, are newly described. Their generic placement and affinities are discussed. A new combination in Cheirostylis is made for the Taiwanese Zeuxine tabiyahanensis Hayata. Records of five orchid species new to Bhutan are also presented.
A taxonomic revision of Oreorchis is presented. A key to the species and synonymies, descriptions, illustrations and distributions for each taxon are provided. The status of the genera Kitigorchis F. Maek. and Diplolabellum F. Maek. are discussed. The former is redefined as a monotypic genus, with three of the four species included by Maekawa being returned to Oreorchis; the latter is considered congeneric with Oreorchis. Three species, O. angustata, O. aurantiaca and O. nepalensis, are newly described here and O. indica is reduced to varietal status within O. foliosa. Some outstanding problems in the taxonomy of the genus are noted.